ISSN 2415-1297 (Online)   ISSN 2415-1300 (Print)
Volume : 27 Issue : 3 Year : 2019
Med J Islamic World Acad Sci: 16 (1)
Volume: 16  Issue: 1 - 2006
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1.Study of Blood Pressure Patterns Versus Serum Lipid Parameters in Obese Human Subjects
Muhammad S. Akhtar, Syeda M. Ansar, Naheed Abbas, Nazir Ahmad
Pages 5 - 10
A study was conducted to determine relationship of obesity with the blood pressure patterns and lipid parameters in preview of its unique local diet patterns. A total of 200 non-diabetic human subjects of either sex were included in the study. They were categorized on the basis of body mass index (BMI) as obese and non-obese. Each group was further divided into 2 subgroups; hypertensive and normotensive. Fasting lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL-and HDL-Cholesterols and total triglycerides) in each group was determined to compare the levels among various groups. BMI was calculated from height and weight, while blood pressure was measured with a sphygmomanometer. Lipid profile was determined with Merck kits. Diet and related information was also collected from the patients directly.
Means of all parameters, except LDL-C, were higher in females than males; among these BMI and HDL-C showed significant difference. There was a significant negative correlation of diastolic blood pressure with HDL-C in obese subjects; all the other parameters were non-significantly correlated. In the non-obese subjects, there was a significant positive correlation between systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures and LDL-C. All other parameters were found non-significantly correlated. The analysis of variance was done in four groups namely, obese non-hypertensives, obese hypertensives, non obese non-hypertensives and non obese hypertensives. BMI, SBP, DBP, LDL-C and total cholesterol had significantly different means in the above four groups, while HDL-C and total triglycerides were statistically non-significant (p>0.05) among four groups.

2.Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker Valsartan Enhances Glucose-Induced Insulin Secretion
Azizi Ayob, Suhaimi Hashim, Zulnizam Azdan, Tariq A. Razak
Pages 11 - 17
A number of antihypertensive drugs are known to be diabetogenic. This may contribute to less than expected decrease in the incidence of coronary heart disease with reduction in blood pressure with treatment in hypertensive patients. This study was aimed to determine the effects of a member, Valsartan, of a new class of drugs, angiotensin II receptor blocker, on glucose induced insulin secretion. Male albino rat pancreases were used. The isolated pancreases were perfused with Kreb's solution containing bovine albumin (200 mg/dl) with low glucose (60 mg/dl) followed by high glucose (300 mg/dl) at a rate of 4 ml/min. The dose of Valsartan used was based on the peak plasma level achieved in human at standard single oral dose of 80 mg daily, which was 1.64 mg/L. Five treatment groups were used: Control group, Valsartan at 10%, Valsartan at 100% and Valsartan at 10 times of the 1.64 mg/L, and Diazoxide 10 g/ml group. Insulin levels in the perfusate were measured by radioimmunoassay. Valsartan at all concentrations significantly increases glucose induced insulin secretion (p < 0.05). Valsartan at 10 %, Valsartan at 100% and Valsartan at 10 times of the 16.4 mg/L, increases glucose induced insulin secretion by 226.4 %, 161.7 % and 156.3 %, respectively. Diazoxide, significantly inhibits glucose induced insulin secretion (p < 0.05).
Valsartan at all concentrations enhances glucose-induced insulin secretion in isolated rat pancreas technique.

3.Plasmid-Associated Lactocin RN78 Production in A Lactobacillus RN78 Strain Isolated from A Dairy Sample in Iran
Naheed Mojgani, M. P. Ashtiani, Saeid E. Khanian
Pages 19 - 24
A bacteriocin, lactocin RN78 produced by a Lactobacillus RN78 strain isolated previously from a cheese sample, was found inhibitory against many pathogenic Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including Kl. pneumoniae, L. ivanovii, L. monocytogenes, Ps. aeruginosa, and S. aureus. Characterization of the inhibitory agent produced by RN78 strain revealed it to be heat stable (100 and 121C for 90 and 15 minutes respectively), and active at wide pH range of 3 to 9. Moreover, the inhibitory activity was completely destroyed after treatment with proteolytic enzymes (Pronase and Trypsin); while no change in its antimicrobial activity was recorded after treatment with the enzyme catalase. A rapid cell death of the indicator strain (106 to 107 cells) within 2 hours of incubation in presence of 10240 AU mL- of lactocin RN78 indicated the bactericidal nature of this bacteriocin against L. monocytogenes. Treatment of lactocin RN78 with 0.5 mM EDTA resulted in expansion of the inhibitory spectrum and it inhibited the growth of E. coli and S. typhi to which it was previously non-influential. Curing of the producer strain RN78 with acridine orange resulted in Bac-mutant defective in bacteriocin production. Plasmid analysis of the wild type and mutant's defective in bacteriocin production indicated the absence of a 42Kb plasmid that was originally present in the wild producer strain. All the cured strains retained their immunity to lactocin RN78 which indicated the possibility of the immunity genes to be on the chromosomes instead of being on the plasmid RN.

4.Effect of Different Durations of Schistosoma Mansoni Infection on The Levels of Some Antioxidants in Mice
Maha Rizk, T. A. Fayed, M. Badawy, N. Sabaa El-Regal
Pages 25 - 34
The levels of lipid peroxides, glutathione, vitamin C, vitamin E catalase and superoxide dismutase enzymes were measured in the livers of Schistosoma mansoni infected mice (CD strain weighing 20-25g) at different durations post infection (1,2,4,6 and 8 weeks). Moreover, the liver weight, body weight, liver to body weight and total protein were studied in the same animal groups. Control non-infected groups were run simultaneously with each infected mice group. The data obtained showed that lipid peroxides were elevated throughout the different durations of infection while glutathione decreased with infection. On the other hand, both vitamins C and E showed a reduction in the livers of mice during the different durations of infection. The activity of catalase showed an insignificant change after one and two weeks and a high significant decrease in the livers of four, six and eight weeks S.mansoni infected mice, while, superoxide dismutase significantly decreased one and two weeks post infection with a significant elevation four, six and eight weeks post infection. Moreover, a significant reduction was observed in body weight after four, six and eight weeks of infection accompanied with an elevation in liver weight only after six and eight weeks. Consequently, liver weight/body weight showed an elevation after four, six and eight weeks of infection. Finally, the protein content was significantly lower at one, six and eight weeks post infection with S.mansoni.
It could thus be concluded that host-parasite association results in production of free radicals as a result of an oxidative stress where the parasites struggle to overcome the immune response of the host and changes in host liver antioxidants occur as a means to scavenge these radicals.

5.Comparison of Efficacy and Safety of Topical Ketotifen (Zaditen) and Cromolyn Sodium in Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis
Mohammad R. Shoja, Mohammad R. Behsharaty
Pages 35 - 40
The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of Ketotifen fumarate 0.025% (Zaditen) with Cromolyn sodium 4% eye drops in prevention of itching, tearing and redness in vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC).
This double masked randomized single center clinical trial conducted between April and August 2004 in Yazd. One hundred eligible patients with clinical diagnosis of moderate VKC were randomly assigned to Zaditen (Group A, n=50) and Cromolyn sodium (Group B, n=50) eye drops for a 4 week period. Itching, lacrimation, redness and photophobia were scored on a 4-point severity scale.
At the follow up visits, the responder rate based on subjects assessment of global efficacy was significantly greater in Ketotifen group (71.5%) than in Cromolyn group (53%). A clear response to treatment occurred in 94.4% of Zaditen patients and 81.2% of sodium Cromoglycate patients. The investigator's assessment of responder rates also showed that Ketotifen was superior to Cromolyn sodium (p=0.001). Ketotifen produced a significantly better outcome than Cromolyn (p<0.05) for relief of signs and symptoms of VKC. Ketotifen fumarate treatment significantly reduced the total signs and symptoms score for each patient compared to day 0.
Ketotifen had a faster onset of action and provided better symptom relief than Cromolyn: the rapid onset of action and symptom control, make Zaditen a valuable treatment for VKC.

6.Evaluation of The Anti-Diabetic Effect of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Tapinanthus Butungii in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats
A. A. Osinubi, O. G. Ajayi, A. E. Adesiyun
Pages 41 - 47
The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is between 2-7% of the population, increasing with age to between 10-14% of the patients aged above 40 years. Despite significant achievements in treatment modalities and preventive measures, the prevalence of diabetes has risen exponentially in the last decade. There is therefore a continued need for new and more effective therapies. Our aim was to evaluate the hypoglycemic, anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic effects of aqueous extract of fresh green leaves of Tapinanthus butungii in rats.
Young adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 180-200 g were used. Diabetes mellitus was induced in the group of diabetic test rats by intraperitoneal injections of alloxan (150 mg/kg). Hyperglycemic state was induced by administration of subcutaneous injections of 50% Dextrose in water (5 g/kg). Single doses of aqueous leaf extract of Tapinanthus butungii (200, 300 or 400 mg/kg p.o.) were administered to normoglycemic, hyperglycemic and diabetic rats. The hypoglycemic, anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic effects of these single doses were compared with those of glibenclamide (10 mg/kg), chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg), insulin lente (0.1 I.U./kg) and distilled water (2 ml/kg). Blood glucose levels were estimated before treatment, 0h, 1h, 2h, 4h, 8h, 10h and 12h after administration of extract.
Aqueous leaf extract of Tapinanthus butungii produced significant dose-dependent reductions (p < 0.05-0.001) in blood glucose concentrations of normoglycemic, hyperglycemic and diabetic rats comparable to glibenclamide, chlorpropamide and insulin.
Our results suggest that the leaves of Tapinanthus butungii have strong and remarkable anti-diabetic properties. Further studies are, however, required on the characterization of the constituents of the leaf extract of Tapinanthus butungii.

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