ISSN 2415-1297 (Online)   ISSN 2415-1300 (Print)
Volume : 26 Issue : 4 Year : 2018
Med J Islamic World Acad Sci: 16 (3)
Volume: 16  Issue: 3 - 2006
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1.Reversibility of Age-Related Immune Dysfunction in Mammals by A Combined Treatment of Some Trace Elements and Vitamins
Kamal A. El-Shaikh, Mohamed S. Gabry, Gehan A. Othman
Pages 103 - 114
Immune responses normally reduced during aging may be resulted to different extends by the intake of several essential micro- and macronutrients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo effect of different doses of hepanox on humoral and cell mediated immune responses of aged-mice in a trial to improve age-associated immune dysfunction.
Different doses of hepanox (0.4, 2 or 10 g/mouse) were orally administrated to aged mice daily for one month. Control mice were treated with 0.2 ml of the sesame oil only. Our study shows that total leukocyte counts from PBL, Thy, PLN, MLN and BM as well as total and differential counts of PEC were significantly decreased in aged mice. Treatment of aged mice with hepanox preparations (0.4, 2 or 10 g/mouse) caused a progressive increase in the total numbers of leukocytes from all lymphoid organs studied.
The present study shows also that the phagocytic function of PEC decreased with age of mice, while treatment of aged mice with hepanox preparation elicited a progressive increase in the scavenger activity of PEC. In old mice, there is a significant decline in PFC response to in vivo immunization with SRBC while the treatment of aged mice with hepanox preparation elicited a gradual increase in PFC response. Also, the number of T-lymphocytes decreased significantly with advancing age of mice. Treatment of aged mice with hepanox preparations (2 and 10 g/mouse) elicited a progressive increase in the number of T-lymphocytes. While in vitro addition of hepanox preparations (0.002, 0.01 or 0.05 g/well) to old mice splenocytes, stimulated with Con A mitogen, significantly increased T-cells proliferation. The treatment of aged-mice with hepanox might be capable of maintaining and restoring the aged-related reduction in the immune efficiency.

2.Effects of Vernonia Amygdalina and Chlorpropamide on Blood Glucose
Abraham A.A. Osinubi
Pages 115 - 119
Despite significant achievements in treatment modalities and preventive measures, the prevalence of diabetes has risen exponentially in the last decade. Because of these limitations there is a continued need for new and more effective therapies. An increasing number of people are using dietary and herbal supplements, even though there is a general lack of evidence for their safety and efficacy. Consequently, science-based medical and governmental regulations are needed for more randomized clinical studies to provide evidence of efficacy and safety. The aim of this study was therefore to subject one such promising Vernonia amygdalina (VA), to agents to further investigate the potential function of VA for treatment of diabetes mellitus as potentially emerging alternative therapy for type 2 diabetes.
Sixty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 180-220g were used for the experiment. Half of the animals were randomly rendered diabetic by administering alloxan (150 mg/kg). Equal numbers (20) of the rats were variously administered aqueous leaf extract of VA (500 mg/kg), chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg) and distilled water (2 ml/kg).
Aqueous leaf extract of VA produced significant (p < 0.05-0.001), reductions in the blood glucose concentrations of normal (normoglycemic) and diabetic (hyperglycemic) rats 1 to 12 hours after acute treatment compared with distilled water-treated control animals. Its blood-glucose-lowering potential in both normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic male Sprague-Dawley rats compared favourably to that of chlorpropamide.
Administration of the aqueous extract of VA at a concentration of 500 mg/kg of body weight significantly decreased the levels of blood glucose. The hypoglycemic efficacy was comparable with that of chlorpropamide, a standard hypoglycemic drug.

3.Possible Cellular Expression of IFN- in Women with Abortion Infected with Toxoplasma Gondii
Raghed B. Al-Fertosi, Ameena S. M. Juma
Pages 121 - 134
This study included one hundred and twenty six women with spontaneous abortion (6 of them with induced abortion). Venous blood was collected from these women, and serum was obtained for the performance of the ELISA test for the detection of anti-Toxoplasma IgM to indicate the acute T. gondii infection. Paraffin embedded blocks of the trophoblastic tissue obtained from each patient were prepared. The trophoblastic tissue was investigated for the presence of T. gondii antigen by using immunohistochemical analysis, using specific monoclonal antibodies for T. gondii. According to the immunohistochemical analysis, the patients were divided into three groups, (group 1) 26 positive for Toxoplasma, (group 2) 26 negative for Toxoplasma, and (group 3) 6 negative for Toxoplasma (induced abortion group).
The results indicated a high frequency of the T. gondii infection among women with abortion, 23 of 120 women (19.17%) have IgM Abs against T. gondii by ELISA test. The use of ELISA test for the detection of anti-Toxoplasma IgM was highly specific (100%) but not highly sensitive (88.46%). This could explain the use of more sensitive techniques for the detection of T. gondii infection like immunohistochemical analysis. The results of the IHC revealed that 26 of 120 women (21.66%) had Toxoplasma antigen within the trophoblastic tissue. The sensitivity and specificity of IHC were 100%, 96.91%, respectively.
The current study showed that there was no significant difference between the mean age of positive and negative groups, while there was a highly significant difference between the mean age of positive and induced abortion groups. Similarly, the mean age between negative and induced abortion groups showed a highly significant difference.
In this protocol, the majority of patients within the positive and negative groups were found to have no previous abortions, while patients with previous abortions constituted a less percent. Among the induced abortion group, it has been found that all the six cases had no previous abortions.
The mean gestational age among the three groups was compared in this study, where it revealed a highly significant difference between the positive and induced abortion groups. The same result was found between the mean gestational age of negative and induced abortion groups. In addition, it revealed the lack of significant difference between the mean gestational age of positive and negative groups. The majority of abortions within the positive group for T. gondii fall in the period of 12 weeks (41%) followed by 8 (15%) and 10 (12%) weeks of gestational age.
Levels of IFN- were investigated by using immunohistochemical analysis. The results revealed a highly significant difference regarding the mean percent of IFN- when compared between the positive and negative groups. In this work, t-test revealed a highly significant difference regarding the mean percent of IFN- between positive and induced abortion groups. Similarly, a significant difference was found when the mean percent of IFN- was compared between the negative and induced abortion groups. The results of immunohistochemical analysis of IFN- within positive group showed that there were negative and highly significant correlations with gestational age but not with number of previous abortions.
In conclusion, the data of this study strengthen the possibility that IFN- may explain the role of type 1 cytokines in the pathogenicity of abortion in the positive group for T.gondii.

4.Antineoplastic Activity of Nickel (II)-Cystine Complex against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma in Swiss Albino Mice
M. Jesmin, M. M. Ali, A. K. Biswas, M. R. Habib, J. A. Khanam
Pages 135 - 142
Ni(II)-cystine complex was synthesized by treating saturated aqueous solutions of Ni (II) acetate and L(-) cystine (in 1: 1 molar ratio). The complex was used to study its antineoplastic activity against EAC cells in Swiss Albino mice. It was found that the Ni (II) complex restored the depleted haematological and biochemical parameters of the EAC bearing mice towards normal values and enhanced the longevity of such mice significantly. The test compound on the other hand showed negligible host toxicity. The results obtained were compared with those obtained with a standard anticancer drug bleomycin.

5.Antioxidant Therapy of Vitiligo
Naci Bor
Pages 143 - 149
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