ISSN 2415-1297 (Online)   ISSN 2415-1300 (Print)
 
             
 
Volume : 27 Issue : 1 Year : 2019
 
Med J Islamic World Acad Sci: 3 (4)
Volume: 3  Issue: 4 - 1990
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EDITORIAL
1.Conference on Technology Transfer for Development in The Muslim World
Mehmet Ergin
Pages 247 - 248
From 19 to 21 November 1990 the Islamic Academy of Sciences organized a Conference in Antalya-Turkey, on the theme Technology Transfer for Development in the Muslim World.
The primary aim of the event was to seek a better understanding of the objectives, achievements and failures of regional, interregional and international cooperation in science and technology, and hence technology transfer. The conference was attended by a hundred distinguished individuals, industrialists, IAS Fellows and representatives of organizations within and outside the OIC System which includes outstanding experts in specialized fields of technology from private and public sectors, specialists from major intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations.

2.Summer Schools for Teaching Research
Naci M. Bor
Pages 249 - 250
Research in the developed countries is frequently taught by the experienced experimentalists and by professors actively engaged in research. In fact this teaching starts in the classrooms where every subject is lectured from the angle of new developments after the classical knowledge is first given. These two areas generally provide sufficient stimulation for the young students. Thus introduced to new ideas the ambitious students apply for summer fellowships in research. Others are given funds in support of their own small projects to be conducted in the professors' laboratory. Once he has arrived at this point the student is well on the way for a research carrier.

SHORT ARTICLE
3.A Proposal for The Establishment of An Islamic Leadership Institution
A. S. Majali
Pages 251 - 254
Leadership is the ability to show the way, to guide or conduct, to direct and govern, to influence the actions or opinions of others. Ibn Khaldoun said: "Human social organization is something necessary. The philosophers expressed this fact by saying man is (political) by nature.
Through cooperation, the needs of a number of persons, many times greater than their own (number), can be satisfied. When mankind has achieved social organization,... and civilization in the world has thus become a fact, peoples need someone to exercise a restraining influence and keep them apart, for aggressiveness and injustice are in the animal nature of man. The person who exercises a restraining influence... must be one of themselves".
Ibn Khaldoun shares an acute insightfulness with men of diverse professions who not only excelled in this particular ‘science’ but actively concerned themselves with the basic features of man and society.

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
4.Synthesis of Condensed 1,2,4-Triazolo-Heterocycles
Mohammed A. E. Shaban, Adel Z. Nasr, Mamdouh A. M. Taha
Pages 255 - 261
Dehydrogenative cyclization of hydrazones derived from aromatic aldehydes and 2-hydrazino-1,3-benzothiazole, 2-hydrazinoquinoline, 2-hydrazinolepidine and 2-hydrazinopyridine using different dehydrogenating or oxidizing agents gave the corresponding 3-aryl-1,2,4-triazolo [3,4-b] 1,3-benzothiazoles, 3-aryl-1,2,4-triazolo [4,3-a] quinolines, 3-aryl-1,2,4-triazolo [4,3-a] lepidines and 3-aryl-1,2,4-triazolo [4,3-a] pyridines respectively. 1-Aroyl-2-(1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)-, 1- aroyl-2-(quinol-2-yl)- and 1-aroyl-2-(lepid-2-yl) hydrazines were also prepared and their dehydrative cyclization using acetyl chloride was attempted. Under the used conditions 1-aroyl-2-(quinol-2-yl) hydrazines directly cyclized to 1,2,4-triazolo [4,3-a] quinolines while 1-aroyl-2-(1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl) hydrazines and 1-aroyl-2- (lepid-2-yl) hydrazines gave 1-acety-2-aroyl-1-1-(1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl) hydrazines and 1-acetyl-2-aroyl-1-(lepid-2-yl) hydrazines respectively. The latter were successfully cyclized through the elimination of an acetic acid molecule to the corresponding 3-aryl-1,2,4-triazolo-heterocycle by heating in boiling phenol.

5.Studies on The Synthesis of Conjucted Five-Six Biheterocyclic Cyanine Dye Series
R. M. Abu El-Hamd, A. I. M. Koraiem
Pages 262 - 268
Synthesis of new types of pyrazolo (4,3-d)-benzoxazine/quinoxaline cyanine dyes covering dimethine, mono (di)-cationic styryl, azastyryl and merocyanines were achieved by interaction of 3-methyl-l-phenyl pyrazolo (4,3-d)-benzoxazine/quinoxaline with active carbonyl components. The newly synthesized dyes were identified by spectral data.

6.Mixed Ligand Complexes of Bis (S-Methyl-N-Arylidene Hydrazine Carbodithioate) Nickel (II) Chelates with Some Amino Acids and Nitrogenous Heterocycles
Aly M. A. Hassaan
Pages 269 - 272
The mixed ligand complexes of bis (S-methyl-N-arylidene hydrazine carbodithioate) nickel (II) cheates (I; R=C6H5, p-CH3C6H4 and p-NO2C6H4) with glycine, -alanine, imidazole and the sodium salts of morpholine and piperazine dithiocarbamate are prepared and isolated in different solvent, and analyzed. Structures are suggested on the basis of IR and UV-VIS spectran and magnetic measurement. The results obtained suggest the formation of octahedral with imidazole and 1: 1 displaced tetrahedral with the others.

7.Simulation of An Adsorptive Solar Refrigerator Operating in Morocco
F. Lemmini, F. Meunier
Pages 273 - 279
Adsorptive solar cooling units have been successfully tested in the last years. In this paper, a numerical simulation of one year operation in Rabat is presented. The main result is according to the model, every day the heat extraction is positive. The highest efficiencies are obtained in winter: this is due to the significant influence of nocturnal cooling on the Active Carbon + Methanol system. The average solar coefficient of performance (COP) is 0.114 and most of the time (75%) the daily cold production lies between 2.100 and 3.000 kJ/m2. This type of refrigerator seems to be, at the moment, one of the most attractive solution for solar cooling.

8.Comparative Binding Studies of Aluminum and Iron to Serum Transferrin
A. A. Mostaghie, A. W. Skillen
Pages 280 - 283
The binding characteristics of aluminum and iron to serum transferrin were investigated and compared by using spectrophotometric titration technique. Both metal ions bound to serum transferrin and competed for the same binding sites on the transferrin. Aluminum transferrin (Al-tf) and iron transferrin (Fe-tf) complexes had maximum absorbances at 240 nm and 470 nm respectively. Bicarbonate was necessary for binding activities and citric acid facilitated the binding of both metals to transferrin. Tyrosyl residues were involved in iron binding but not in aluminum binding to transferrin. The complete saturation of transferrin with iron or aluminum was performed within 30 mins. Iron uptake by transferrin was reduced in the presence of aluminum. The relationship between aluminum and iron binding to this protein and the occurrence of anemia in hemodialyzed patients is discussed.

9.Screening of Some Pakistani Plants for Milk Clotting Activity
M. Umar Dahot, M. Yakoub Khan, A. N. Memon
Pages 284 - 286
Ten plants were analysed for both milk clotting and protease activities. Nine plants were studied after classification into stems, leaves and flowers and one without this classification. During the course of screening Papaya leaves and Euphorbia caducifolia stem samples were found more potent for milk clotting activity.

10.The Effect of Thallium (I) Salts on The Electrochemical Properties of Gold
Melike Kabasakaloglu, Semra Bilgic
Pages 287 - 291
In recent years, extensive research is being carried out concerning oxide layers on noble metal surfaces because of their importance in fuel-cells. In this study the effect of the small amounts of thallium acetate and thallium nitrate on the electrochemical properties of gold has been investigated. For this purpose, using cyclic volt-metric method current-potential curves were obtained. The electrode used in this work was a gold wire, reference and counter electrodes were calomel and platinum electrodes. Before each experiment electrode was oxidized and then reduced in 1N H2SO4 and reference curve was obtained in this medium. In the same concentration of thallium acetate and thallium nitrate, the anodic current observed in a medium with acetate was smaller than that observed with nitrate.

REVIEW ARTICLE
11.Methods for Approximating Accumulated Claim Distribution
S. M. Aqil Burney
Pages 292 - 297
Different methods for approximating accumulated claim distribution are reviewed and compared with illustrations. Monte Carlo method is restressed when personal computers are available. Simulation results show that desired accuracy can be achieved by increasing the simulated sample size.

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
12.Fungi associated with Some Aquatic Plants Collected from Freshwater Areas At Assiut (Upper Egypt)
Farida T. El-Hissy, Abdel-Rouf M. Khallil, Mohamed A. El-Nagdy
Pages 298 - 304
Sixty three species in addition to one variety belonging 25 fungal genera were recovered during this investigation. Three species of aquatic Hyphomycetes are new records to Egypt. The composition of water-borne fungi was basically similar to those of the washwater (phyllosphere) and plant part samples (phylloplane). No qualitative variations but quantitative differences were observed. Of the 17 identified zoosporic species, Dictyuchus sterilis, Pythium thalassium and P. intermedium were the commonest species. On glucose Czapek's agar medium the most frequent species in three substrates were members of Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Some fungal species were isolated only from water samples and not from phyllosphere or phylloplane and vice versa. Aspergillus niger and A. flavus were the commonest species in water samples and phyllosphere whereas F. moniliforme was the prevalent species in phylloplane.

13.Some Physiological Factors Influencing Lipid Production by Rhodotorula Glutinis from Egyptian Beet Molasses
Khaled M. Ghanem, S. A. Sabry, H. H. Yusef
Pages 305 - 309
The growth and lipid production by Rhodotorula glutinis cultivated on beet molasses (BM) containing medium were optimal at 8% BM level added at the beginning of the fermentation. Growth yields and lipid production were accelerated in presence of (NH4)2SO4 at 5 g/L. and NaH2PO4 (0.5 g/L.). Varying levels of K2SO4, ZnSO4, 7H2O and FeCI3 (one at a time) in the cultivation medium have almost no effect on the fermentation activities. Similarly, an exogenous supply of different concentrations of MgSO4.7H2O exerts non-significant effect. On the other hand, the supplementation of cornsteep liquor (5g/L.) and cotton seed oil (1%) to the medium permitted maximal yeast activities.

14.Production of Microbial Lipids from Beet Molasses
S. A. Sabry, K. M. Ghanem, H. H. Yusef
Pages 310 - 313
A variety of yeasts were cultivated on beet molasses (BM)-containing medium. Rhodotorula glutinis was superior to the other yeasts in lipid production (14% on dry weight basis), as well as in the efficient conversion of BM sugars to lipids (7%). Repeatedly centrifuged BM solution offered the best molasses sample which allowed the production of relatively high yeast yields. Maximum lipid yield (24.1%) was achieved with 8 days old cultures of Rhodotorula glutinis grown on a medium composed of (g/L): NH4NO3, 3; NaH2PO4, 0.7; K2SO4, 0.1, ZnSO4.7H2O, 0.05; FeCl3, 0.05; centrifuged BM, 60. pH 7.0.

15.The Polarographic Reduction of Some Arenotropilidenes Arenotropones and Their Chromium and Iron Tricarbonyl Complexes in DMF
G. B. El-Hefnawy, M. El-Borai, S. H. Etaiw
Pages 314 - 317
The electro reduction of some arenotropilidenes and their chromium and iron tricarbonyl complexes in DMF were found to proceed by two electrons represents by one wave, producing the corresponding dianion. The polarograms of arenotropones and their chromium tricarbonyl complexes in DMF consist of two successive reduction waves, each corresponds to 1 F/mol. The reduction mechanism was investigated as well as the number of electrons was determined. Also, the half wave potentials of the ligands were compared with those of their metal tricarbonyl complexes.

16.Pulmonary Artery and Capillary Prostaglandin Like Activity in Cases with Pulmonary Hypertension of Various Etiology
Metin Özenci, Atila Bozkurt, Hatice Özenci
Pages 318 - 324
The determination of PGLA by bioassay method from the Pa and Pc blood samples of patients -20 with passive pulmonary hypertension due to valvular heart disease, 3 with primary pulmonary hypertension, 1 with chronic constrictive pericarditis and high pulmonary pressure, 1 with pulmonary hypertension due to pulmonary branch stenosis, totally 25, and 13 cases who had pulmonary hypertension due to pulmonary disease (chronic cor pulmonale)- were performed. Twentyone persons who had cardiac catheterization of various reasons were used as control group and the values were compared. In control group PaPGLA values were significantly high (p<0.0001) from PcPGLA, while the group with pulmonary hypertension of mechanical factors had an unversed and significant ratio (p<0.05) and the difference in the group of chronic cor pulmonale was insignificant (p<0.05). In our opinion while the lung is a PG metabolizing organ normally in pulmonary hypertension, if parenchymal disease does not exist, it acts as a PG releasing organ.

17.Comparative Effectiveness of Bacillus Thuringiensis and Lannate against Spodoptera Littoralis
H. S. Salama, F. N. Zaki, S. A. Salem, A. Shams El-Din
Pages 325 - 329
Application of Dipel 2x at a rate of 250 g/g was effective against the larvae of Spodoptera littoralis (1st to 4th instars), while larvae in older stages (5th and 6th instars) were more resistant. Lannate was highly effective against either young or old larvae. The addition of potassium carbonate to Dipel increased the larval mortality. In Sharkia governorate, the yield of soybean increased significantly when the infested areas were treated once by either Dipel 2x or Lannete with 1.113 fold increase compared with the control. In Monoufia governorate, an obvious increase in soybean yield was also recorded when soybeans were treated three times with Dipel 2x or Lannete but the fold of increase was 2.031 -2.066 times compared to the control. This difference in yield give a higher net profit to the farmer exceeding the costs of spray applications.

18.Thermal Resistance of Two Strains of Listeria Monocytogenes
Afshan Talat, Roquya Siddiqi
Pages 330 - 332
The thermal resistance of two strains of Listeria monocytogenes, strain NCTC 7973 and NCTC 5105, was demonstrated at five different temperatures (52,57,62,67, 72°C) in pasteurized and whole boiled milk. 3 ml portions of milk suspended at concentrations of ca. 2.23x155 cells ml-1 was heated at temperatures ranging from 52 to 72°C. The D-value of NCTC 7973 for fresh boiled milk ranged from 1620 to 60 sec. In pasteurized milk the D-value was computed ranging from 1860 to 75 sec. Moreover the Z-value for the same strain was 14.2°C and 11.6°C for fresh boiled milk and pasteurized milk respectively. The D-value of strain NCTC 5105 ranged from 1050 to 120 sec. for fresh boiled milk whereas for pasteurized milk it ranged from 2100 to 69 sec. The Z-value of NCTC 5105 was 21.5°C and 13.8°C for fresh boiled milk and pasteurized milk respectively.

19.Inexpensive Technology for Mass Rearing of Corn Earworm Heliothis Armigera (Hubn) on Modified Noctuid Diet Beyond 20th Generations
M. Rafi Sheikh, Dilnawaz Sheikh, S. Baqir Naqvi
Pages 333 - 335
The mass rearing of corn earworm Heliothis armigera (Hubn) has carried out upto twenty third generations uninterrupted. The original diet of shorey and Hale has been used after incorporating vitamin mixture, replacement of brewer's yeast with baker's yeast and substitution of lima bean with lobia bean (Asparagus bean).

20.Estimation of Insecticidal Capability of Bacillus Thuringiensis (Sotto) against Pink Bollworm Pectinosphora Gossypiella (Saunders)
M. Rafi Sheikh, Dilnawaz Sheikh, S. Baqir Naqvi
Pages 336 - 338
The bioassay on pink bollworm Pectinophora gassypiella (Saunders) was carried out using - endotoxin or purified crystals of an indigenous isolate of bacillus thuringiensis sotto. The crystals were obtained by two phase liq/liq separation technique. LD 50 of the target insect was determined to be 30 g/ml of purified - endotoxin per milliliter of the diet.

21.Transhiatal Esophagectomy in Benign Diseases: Study of Six Cases
Fatma Atalay Tatar, Tugrul Tansug, Erol Kaymak, Ali Galip Denecli, Mustafa Nermi Özer
Pages 339 - 342
Esophagectomy without thoracotomy was performed on six patients with benign esophageal diseases. In all but one case the gastrointestinal continuity was maintained by esophagogastrostomy, a colonic interposition was performed on a patient with severe corrosive esophagogastric injury. The average duration of the operation was 225 minutes, the average blood loss was estimated to be 515 ml. There was no mortality among the patients. Complications included pneumothorax (four cases), pleural effusion (one case), stenosis (one case), wound infection (one case). There was no anastomotic leak or recurrent nerve injury. Transhiatal esophagectomy is a preferable procedure for benign diseases as well as for esophageal carcinomas, as it is a simpler and safer method with lower pulmonary and septic complications than esophagectomy via thoracic route.

22.Treatment of Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis with Systemic Zinc Sulfate
Naci M. Bor, Ayvaz Karabıyıkoglu, Türkan Karabıyıkoglu
Pages 343 - 347
A series of 67 out-patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis with respect to zinc and copper deficiency were studied at the Medical and Surgical Research Center of Hacettepe University Medical School. Before the treatment serum zinc and copper deficiencies were observed in 54 cases of the entire series. Of these 40 patients were deficient in serum Zn only (mean 75.44 ± 9.55 g/dl), 2 cases serum Cu (mean 80 g/dl) and the remaining 12 were deficient in both trace metals (74.91 ± 8.60 and 78.36 ± 7.14 respectively). The remaining 15 patients revealed normal values for these two trace metals at the first evaluation. Following one, two and three months of treatment serum Zn (93.37 ± 13.49, 92.87 ± 14.88 and 98.94 ± 16.06) and Cu (89.45 ± 14.97, 97.82 ± 15.86 and 95.45 ± 8.49) levels of the patients rose parallel to the improvement in clinical findings. Of the 67 patients on systemic Zinc sulfate and copper sulfate treatment 40 revealed complete recovery of ulceration, and twenty-two showed definite improvement after 3 months of treatment. In the remaining 5 recurrences were observed, lesions however, were of shorter duration, painless, and smaller in size. The statistical analyses of the results were made using paired-t test.

23.Endogenous Creatinine and Blood Urea Nitrogen Clearances in Normal Pregnancy
Gülay Logoglu, Ufuk Bısak, Fatma Tuncay Özgünen, Tuncay Özgünen, Ayşe Doğan
Pages 348 - 353
Endogenous creatinine and BUN clearances were determined during the first trimester (n=11), second trimester (n=17) and the third trimester (n=27) of healthy pregnant women. Both of the clearances increased significantly during the first trimester and sustained a high level till term, relatively decreasing below the first trimester values towards the end pregnancy. The increments observed in the corrected creatinine and corrected BUN clearances were determined to be higher. Being an expected result of these findings, plasma creatinine and BUN levels in pregnant women decreased significantly from their nonpregnant controls.



 











 
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