ISSN 2415-1297 (Online)   ISSN 2415-1300 (Print)
 
             
 
Volume : 30 Issue : 1 Year : 2023
 
Med J Islamic World Acad Sci: 20 (4)
Volume: 20  Issue: 4 - 2012
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REVIEW ARTICLE
1.Holistic Concept of Bahaq Wa Bars and Their Management in Unani (Greco-Arabic) System of Medicine
Azad H. Lone, Tanzeel Ahmad, Mohd Anwar, Shahida Habib
Pages 113 - 120
A comprehensive description of Amraze jild (skin diseases) is available in classical Unani literature. Ancient Greco-Arabic scholars have described Bahaq wa Bars (pityriasis and vitiligo) in detail along with etiopathogenesis, clinical features, complications, and management in their treatises. According to Razi, Ibn Sina, and Majoosi, Bahaq was Bars are chronic skin ailments that are characterized by white discoloration (hypopigmentation) of skin but with a precise difference. While in case of Bahaq, these patches are located superficially on skin, in Bars these are located deep into the skin. These are humoral diseases occurring because of accumulation of excess or morbid Balgham (phlegm) beneath the skin leading to the weakness of quwate mughaiyarah (augmentative faculty) of skin. Ancient Unani scholars have been treating these ailments successfully since antiquity. They have mentioned and practised a compendium of single as well as compound herbo-mineral formulations for the treatment of Bahaq wa Bars. In this paper, authors have tried to elucidate the holistic concept of these skin aliments along with the treatment as mentioned in classics of Unani medicine.

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
2.Serum Ig and Cytokine Levels in Women with Breast Cancer Before and After Mastectomy
Hiba Q. Ali, Nadham K. Mahdi, Mohammad H. Al-Jowher
Pages 121 - 129
To evaluate serum Ig, complements IL-6, and TNF- in breast cancer patients and to evaluate their role in disease process.
Blood samples were collected from 30 women with primary breast cancer before operation and another blood samples were collected from 23 of them after three cycles of chemotherapy. In addition to this, 20 samples were collected from apparently healthy women as a control group from the outpatient department.
Radial immune diffusion test was performed for the detection of serum IgG, IgA, IgM, C3, and C4, while ELISA test was used for the detection of serum IL-6 and TNF-.
Serum IgG and IgA levels for patients (preoperative) were 1926.84 ± 612.60 mg/dl and 484.750 ± 201.98 mg/dl, respectively. These values were higher than the respective values for the control group (1536.61±441.29 mg/dl and 318.57±124.54 mg/dl) (P < 0.05).These values for IgG and IgA increased with the advancement in the disease stages, while that for IgM showed no significant change.
The level of the serum complement component C3 for the patients (211.50 ± 79.39 mg/dl) was significantly higher than that for the control group (150.71± 39.93 mg/dl) (P<0.05). C3 and C4 levels were positively correlated with the disease stages.
IL-6 and TNF- levels for breast cancer patients were 222.5 ± 68.86 pg/ml and 246.72 ±197.74 pg/ml, respectively. These values were significantly higher than the respective values of the control group (171.3 ± 64.85 pg/ml and 131.52 ± 108.92 pg/ml) (P<0.05)/.These values were found to increase with the advancement of the disease stages but were not statistically significant.
In conclusion, the elevation of serum IgG, IgA, C3, C4, IL-6, and TNF- levels can be considered as an indication for disease status before and after treatment as well as relapses.

3.The Association between Serum Glucose and Serum Lead and Selected Trace Elements in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Syed M. Farid
Pages 130 - 139
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder affecting carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolism. A number of studies have reported an association between DM and alterations in the metabolism of several trace minerals. In this study, serum zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), manganese(Mn), magnesium (Mg), and lead (Pb) were estimated in 55 diabetic patients attending the clinic of King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia), and the results were compared with those of apparently healthy, nondiabetic volunteers of comparable age and social status. The serum glucose level of diabetic subjects (10.21 ± 3.56 mmol L-1) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the value obtained for the nondiabetic subjects (4.23 ± 0.15 mmol L-1). The mean serum levels of Zn (96.25 ± 24.32 g/dl), Cr (4.13 ± 0.52 g/dl), Mn (3.37 ± 0.38 g/dl), and Mg (17.76 ± 0.96 g/dl) were significantly (p < 0.05) lowered in diabetic subjects. The mean serum Pb level of diabetic patients was (17.38 ± 5.06 g/dl) and significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of control subjects. In the present study, the age of the diabetic patients did not show any significant correlation with serum glucose (r = 0.124). The serum levels of glucose were found negatively correlated with serum levels of Zn, Cr, Mn, and Mg of diabetic subjects. A positive relationship was observed between concentrations of serum glucose and Pb (r = 0.438, p < 0.01). The low serum levels of Zn, Cr, Mn, and Mg in diabetic patients compared to that of control subjects may be due to the poor glycemic control.

4.The Views of New Graduate Physicians about Compulsory Service in Turkey
Salih Mollahaliloğlu, Ülger Aydoğan, Mustafa Kosdak, Hasan G. Öncül
Pages 140 - 145
The objective of this study is to analyze the views of new graduate physicians on compulsory service. This is an important study because it is the first study on the views of new graduate physicians on compulsory service prior to their employment in Turkey.
This study was conducted in Turkey in August 2008. All new graduate physicians prior to employment were included in the study, who filled out online questionnaires (Response Rate = 65.9%). Variables impacted physicians’ views on compulsory service were analyzed.
The total number of physicians tends to be less in relatively underdeveloped areas. A total of 49.0% of physicians found the practice of compulsory service useful. There is a statistically significant relationship between the views on the efficiency and need for compulsory service, and the choice of being a physician, regretting being a physician after being employed, and the views on solutions toward the maldistribution of physicians (P<.05).
The practice of compulsory service is beneficial for balancing the physician density in regions. Health Transformation Program (2003) activities are improving the inequality among the regions. Different policies should be developed and given to physicians to encourage them work in underdeveloped regions; they should also be made to see the health care need in the regions with fewer health care workforce. It is important to take these issues into consideration when developing policies toward the solution of this problem.

CASE SERIES
5.An Unaddressed Problem of Light Overexposure due to Supraorbital Rim Fractures and its Reconstruction with Bone Grafting and Forehead Flap
Mehmet O. Yenidünya
Pages 146 - 152
Three cases of supraorbital rim bone defect causing light overexposure to the affected eye were presented. The bony defect was replaced with iliac bone graft, and to cover it a midline forehead flap was transferred. The flap donor site was closed primarily in two cases and a full thickness skin graft was applied in the third case. For all the presented cases, the main complaint about light overexposure disappeared soon after surgery. I would like to conclude that supraorbital rim is one of the important structures of the craniofacial skeleton. Its defects should be considered for reconstruction no matter how small it seems; since it may be associated with a very disappointing complaint of light overexposure to the affected eye—which to my knowledge have not appeared in the literature so far.

USES OF ERROR
6.The Importance of Family Treatment in Intestinal Parasites
Şinasi Özsoylu
Page 153
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