ISSN 2415-1297 (Online)   ISSN 2415-1300 (Print)
Volume : 30 Issue : 1 Year : 2023
Complications of Infectious Mononucleosis in Children [Med J Islamic World Acad Sci]
Med J Islamic World Acad Sci. 2020; 28(2): 61-71 | DOI: 10.5505/ias.2020.83702  

Complications of Infectious Mononucleosis in Children

Mesut Koçak1, Deniz Güven2
1Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara, Turkey
2Pediatrics Clinic, Ankara Kecioren Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey

Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is detected more in preschool and infant children, with differences in clinical features. This study aimed to analyze and compare the demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics and complications of IM in Turkey and other nonindustrial countries.
The study was performed to retrospectively analyze the etiology of fever and lymphadenopathy in Keçiören Training and Research Hospital Pediatric Clinic between 2014 and 2018. Twenty-six patients clinically suspected of having IM and positive for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viral capsid antigen immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody were included in the study.
The files of 26 (13%) patients diagnosed with IM were analyzed for EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM antibody. Twelve (46%) of the patients were male, and 14 (54%) were female; 21 (80.7%) were aged less than 3 years, and the average age was 26 months. The age of onset peaked between 0–12 months (34.6%) and 25–36 months (30.7%). Fever, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly were observed in all patients (n = 26). The fever lasted for an average of 5 days. Tonsillopharyngitis (80%), skin rash (69%), conjunctivitis (65%), anemia (12%), leukocytosis (54%), and high liver function (65%) were the most common laboratory findings. The average hospital stay was 7.5 days. Patients with prolonged fever, lymphadenopathy, and hepatomegaly were more prominent, and patients with elevated liver enzymes stayed longer in the hospital.
This study showed that exposure to EBV at an early age in Turkey, like other nonindustrial countries, developed into IM; therefore, the incidence rates of hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, and hospitalization were high. It aimed to emphasize the importance of preventing exposure at a growing age because it also led to the development of chronic diseases in advanced ages.

Keywords: Children, early age, infectious mononucleosis, nonindustrial countries

Mesut Koçak, Deniz Güven. Complications of Infectious Mononucleosis in Children. Med J Islamic World Acad Sci. 2020; 28(2): 61-71

Corresponding Author: Mesut Koçak, Türkiye

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