ISSN 2415-1297 (Online)   ISSN 2415-1300 (Print)
Volume : 30 Issue : 1 Year : 2023
Med J Islamic World Acad Sci: 11 (4)
Volume: 11  Issue: 4 - 1998
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1.Efficiency of Polymerase Chain Reaction for The Diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis
A. Rafi, B. Naghily
Pages 117 - 120
In view of the importance of early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM), the efficiency of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), one of the most reliable and sensitive DNA-based assays, was compared with conventional methods (acid-fast microscopy and culture) for the detection of M.tuberculosis in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from patients suspected of TBM.
Of the 29 CSF specimens from highly probable TBM patients (based on clinical features), 25 were positive by PCR (86.2%), whereas only one of 29 was acid-fast microscopy (AFM) positive (3.4%) and 5 out 29 were culture positive (17.2%). No positive results were found by AFM, culture or PCR in the non-tuberculous control group.
The results of this study indicate that application of PCR should be extremely useful for the diagnosis of TBM.

2.Brain Tumours in Rural North East Malaysia
Mohd R. Yusoff, Jafri M. Abdullah, Mohd N. Isa
Pages 121 - 129
Reliable data on the epidemiology of brain tumours is essential for planning health services and research. The objectives of this study are to determine the epidemiologic distribution and the incidence of brain tumours less than 4 cm in diameter and to identify factors associated with poor outcome. All cases of brain tumour admitted to Hospital University Sains Malaysia between 1st January 1990 and 31st December 1996 were included. Computerized Tomographic (CT) scan of the brain was done on all patients. The tumours were diagnosed based on their appearance on CT scan, and clinical course with or without tissue diagnosis. The size of the brain tumour was measured manually from the axial CT scan films using the ABC/2 technique. The classification of brain tumours was based on the recent World Health Organization classification. The incidence of brain tumours in this region was low (0.4 per 100.000 population), with no significant gender preponderance. Neuroglial tumours (35%) were the most common brain tumours followed by meningiomas (33%), medulloblastomas (12%) and schwannomas (6%). The incidence of brain tumour with a size less than 4 cm in diameter and less than 30 cc in volume was 68.2% and 58.7% respectively. The incidence of brain tumours located in eloquent areas was 21.7%. One-year survival rate in this study was better with combination of treatment modalities (surgery and radiotherapy), and Karnofsky performance scale was identified as the only important prognostic factor for the survival outcome. In conclusion, the incidence of brain tumours in this region (Kelantan and Terengganu) is low and the size of brain tumours less than 4 cm is common.

3.In-House Preparation and Characterization of Ready-To-Use TC99m-Sn-Macroaggregated Albumin Kit for Lung Perfusion Studies
M. Ilyas, KH H. Haider, A. Saeeda, M. Javed, Z. Shams, C. Sameera
Pages 131 - 138
Macroaggregates of human serum albumin (HSA) are used as a basis for lung perfusion imaging. The present study involves in-house production of a macroaggregated HSA kit. A modified method for the preparation of Tin-macroaggregated albumin (Sn-MAA) kit, with high Tc99m labeling efficiency (>98%) was developed for lung perfusion studies. The aggregative condition of HSA was stabilized by adding 5 mg/ml polyvinyl pyrolidone (PVP 30, 2.5% solution) and gave a uniform particle size distribution in the range of 10- 60 m. The kits were lyophilized and the stability of both wet as well as lyophilized kits were studied at room temperature 8C and 0C. The results revealed that lyophilized kits were stable for up to six months and retained their particle size uniformity and labeling efficiency. Biodistribution studies in the animals gave excellent lung images, with >90% of the injected radiation dose accumulating in the lungs.

4.Effect of Reactive Oxygen Treatment on The Potency of Schistosoma Mansoni Worm Antigens in Induction of Resistance to Challenge Infection in Mice
Kamal El-Shaikh, Mohamed S. Gabry, Zakaria A. Yousief
Pages 139 - 148
The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of reactive oxygen (as NaOCI) treatment on the potency of S. mansoni whole worm antigens in induction of protective resistance to challenge homologous infection.
Five antigen preparations each treated with specific reactive oxygen concentrations were used. For each antigen preparation, mice were individually immunized, twice a week for 5 weeks, with 0.5 mg protein. Two weeks post immunization, mice were individually exposed by tail immersion to a challenge single dose of 100 S. mansoni cercariae. Two months later, animals were sacrificed and the degree of resistance was evaluated using worm burden, egg count, and liver pathophysiology and histopathology as indicative criteria.
The results obtained show that, immunization of mice with untreated antigens caused 26.3% reduction of the worm burden. Immunization of mice with treated antigens furthered the degree of resistance to a maximum of 62.9% by inoculation with antigen preparation treated with 100 ppm of NaOCI. Treatment with higher concentrations of hypochlorite did further the immunogenicity of worm antigens. In view of the relevant studies, however, the increase in the immunogenicity of the worm antigens by reactive oxygen treatment could be attributed to its disruptive effect on the carbohydrate coat thereby making some antigenic epitopes more accessible to the immune response.

5.Belief in Resurrection: Dysthymics Versus Normals
GH. A. Assadulahi, GH. R. Ghassemi
Pages 149 - 151
Dysthymia is one of the subgroups of mood disorders characterized by chronicity which persists throughout the day in almost all days of the week. A sizeable number of patients visiting psychiatric clinics are affected by this illness. The theme of this study was to assess the extent of the dysthymic patients' belief in 'resurrection'.
The sample of study comprised 74 patients who were suffering from dysthymia and received treatment at Noor Medical Centre in Esfahan, in 1996 from October to December. The subjects were matched with a non-dysthymic group while controlling for age, sex, education and religion. A self-developed index containing 22 items evaluating the subjects' belief in 'resurrection' was administered on them and they responded voluntarily.
Comparing the mean score of the subjects, the patient group with 34.38 and the control group with 58.19, differed from each other significantly. This observation is explained in the text.
This promising observation can widen our understanding about the problem of dysthymic patients. Therapists' knowledge of the clients' belief system can facilitate intervention strategies designed to ameliorate the illness condition.

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