ISSN 2415-1297 (Online)   ISSN 2415-1300 (Print)
Volume : 30 Issue : 1 Year : 2023
Med J Islamic World Acad Sci: 15 (4)
Volume: 15  Issue: 4 - 2005
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1.Studies on Resistance/Sensitivity Pattern of Bacteria related with Urinary Tract Infections
Dilnawaz Shaikh, Safia Ashfaq, Khurram Shaikh, Munima Shaikh, Baqir S. Naqvi, Zafar A. Mahmood, Roohi Majid
Pages 129 - 133
In order to determine the resistance pattern against five different groups of antimicrobial agents, six different species of bacteria were isolated from among two hundred cases of UTIs. The front line antibiotics for treating urinary tract infection due to Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus species should include Cephradine, Ofloxacin, Cefaclor, Cephalothin and Pipemidic acid. However, for treating UTI due to Pseudomonas species, the drug of choice must be a member of fluoroquinoline group (norfloxacin, ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin).

2.Damage Pattern as Function of Various Types of Radiations
R. G. Ahmed
Pages 135 - 147
The number of reports on the effects of various types of radiation is gradually increasing because of weakening of the immune system. Radiation can penetrate into living cells and result in the transfer of radiation energy to the biological material. The absorbed energy can increase the reactive oxygen species and break chemical bonds and cause ionization of different biologically essential macromolecules, such as DNA, membrane lipids and proteins. Damage to the cellular membrane release the hydrolytic enzymes responsible for various catabolic processes the tissues and leads to cell death. An understanding of the pattern in critical cellular structures such as DNA is an important prerequisite for a mechanistic assessment of primary radiation injury. The DNA damage induced by radiation such as base alterations, cross-linking, strands break or chromosomal aberration which may in turn lead to mutations. In order to further explore the harmful effects of radiation, I have produced a variety of effects of radiation on the apoptosis and necrosis. Indeed, the present review has shown that, the increase in the oxidative stress (increased endogenous production of the free radicals) due to radiation may be a reason for such a damage of the cell membrane, and may lead to harming the cellular elements (such as DNA). Here, one can hypothesize that, the cells with increased sensitivity to oxidative stress may be more susceptible to damage by radiation compared to normal cells. The ultimate biological consequences of this effect are subsequently processed by these cells. Much work remains to be done to firmly establish this concept.

3.Hepatitis B Vaccination and Infantile Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
Kazem Sakha, Arman Malekian, Said Aslanabadi
Pages 149 - 151
Since 1993, Iranian infants have been routinely vaccinated against hepatitis B. In the period of 1993-2002, twenty five children with infantile thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) were admitted to the Childrens Medical Center in Tabriz, Iran whereas between 1982 and 1992, only two cases were hospitalized with the same diagnosis. This suggests a cause and effect relationship between hepatitis B vaccination and ITP.

4.Variability of Radon Concentrations in Different Compartments of Dwellings in Egypt
Hayam A. Abdel Ghany
Pages 153 - 156
Inhalation of indoor radon has been recognized as one of the health hazards. Building materials, natural gas and underground-derived water supply are considered the major sources of indoor radon and its daughters. In this work a set of radon measurements was carried out, using CR-39 solid state nuclear track detector, in different compartments of dwellings in Cairo built of the same type of building materials. The results showed that the radon concentrations and exhalation rates in these houses varied from 47.94 to 84.32 Bqm-3 and 2.59 to 4.04 mBqm-2 h-2 respectively. The mean values of radon concentrations in living rooms, bedrooms, bathrooms and kitchens were 50.98 1.94, 53.18 3.69, 79.36 2.96, and 81.29 1.93 Bqm-3, respectively. The mean values of exhalation rates were 2.68 0.11, 2.79 0.19, 4.01 0.18, and 4.22 0.12 mBqm-2 h-1, respectively. This data show that bathrooms and kitchens have significantly higher radon concentrations and exhalation rates compared with other compartments and the outdoor levels.

5.Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Markers among High Risk Groups in Palestine
Rola I. Jadallah, Ghaleb M. Adwan, Nael S. Abu-Hasan, Kamel M. Adwan
Pages 157 - 160
Four hundred and twenty one sera samples collected during 1995 to 1997 from subjects at high-risk for HBV infections were tested for the presence of HBV markers. The subjects included kidney transplants (n=109), hemodialyzed patients (n=76), non-vaccinated healthcare workers (n=52) and blood transfusion dependent patients (n=80). Blood transfusion dependent patients include 60 thalassemic, 6 hemophilic and 14 sickle cell anemia patients.
HBsAg prevalence rates of 29.4%, 17%, 22.5% and 9.6% were observed among kidney transplant, hemodialysis, blood transfusion dependent patients, and non-vaccinated healthcare workers, respectively. HBeAg prevalence rates among HBsAg positive subjects of the previous groups were 43.8%, 76.9%, 38.9% and 0.0%, respectively. Our study indicates that 76.9% of HBsAg positive hemodialysis patients and 43.8% of HBsAg positive kidney transplant patients are highly contagious and constitute a high risk factor for the spreading of this infection. The prevalence rates of anti-HBc, previous infection rates of 56.9%, 50.0%, 37.9% and 17.3% were observed among kidney transplant, hemodialysis, blood dependent patients, and non-vaccinated healthcare workers, respectively.
These results show that HBsAg in these high risk groups is high and vaccination against HBV of these groups is recommended.

6.Assessment of Cadmium and Lead in Water, Sediment and Different Organs of Procambarus Clarkii (Girard, 1852) in The River Nile
K. El-Shaikh, A. S. Nada, Z. A. Yousief
Pages 161 - 167
Cadmium and lead were assessed in water, sediment and some organs (exoskeleton, gills, digestive glands and muscles) of crayfish, Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852), in four areas (I: Gezyrat El-Warrak, II: Manial Sheeha, III: Al-Hawamdia and IV: Helwan) along the River Nile at Great Cairo, Egypt. Samples of water, sediment and P. clarkii collected and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The present results showed that the concentration of Cd was markedly lower in water while the concentration of Pb was higher in areas II, III and IV, respectively (p< 0.001), in comparison to area I (control area). The concentration of Cd in sediment increased while it decreased in case of Pb in the three studied areas in comparison to control. The highest bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Cd in four organs observed in area IV while the highest BCF of Pb observed in area I. This study shows that the lowest concentrations of Cd and Pb were in the crayfish muscles in comparison to the exoskeleton, gills, and digestive gland. Also, these results indicate that the analysis of Cd and Pb in different organs of P. clarkii might be a useful as a bioindicator for trace metals pollution in the freshwater system, due to their ability to rapidly accumulate and retain them in their tissues for long periods of time.

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