ISSN 2415-1297 (Online)   ISSN 2415-1300 (Print)
 
             
 
Volume : 27 Issue : 3 Year : 2019
 
Med J Islamic World Acad Sci: 17 (1)
Volume: 17  Issue: 1 - 2009
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REVIEW ARTICLE
1.Highly Pathogenic Influenza A Virus (H5N1)
Ghaleb M. Adwan
Pages 5 - 16
Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 previously known to infect only birds was also found to infect human, causing disease and death. Continuous outbreaks of the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza A resulted in an urgent effort to improve treatments, vaccines, and diagnosis to lower the threat of an influenza pandemic. Control measures and continuous surveillance aimed at reducing exposure of human to potential H5N1-infected poultry. Pandemic human influenza viruses have been emerging for many centuries, thrice only in last century. These pandemics were caused by the most common subtypes of circulating viruses in the community at that time. The influenza virus has segmented genome, which undergoes continuous mutations and genetic reassortments. Phylogenetic analyses of the H5N1 viruses isolated from humans showed that these viruses were identical to those circulating in poultry. Any genetic change in H5N1 enabling human to human transmission may lead to a pandemic of human influenza.

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
2.A Study of The Effect of HESA-A on The Wound Healing Process in Rats
Alizadeh Alimohammad, Paknegad Malihe, Ahmad Amrollah, Mohammadzadeh Mohammad, Mohagheghi Mohammadali, Ghiaci Seddigeh
Pages 17 - 22
Wound healing is the restoration of physical integrity of internal and external structures and involves intricate interactions between the cells and numerous other factors. Appropriate treatment and care are essential for acceleration of the healing process, prevention from infection and chronicity of the wound; in addition different means and approaches have been used to this end. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of HESA-A (a drug of marine-plant origin with active biological ingredients patented by Dr. Ahmadi) on the wound healing process.
The effect of HESA-A; on the 35 mm long full thickness wound in the paravertebral area 1,5mm from the midline on the back of rats. Appliying a concentration of 2,5% (mixture of 2.5% drug and 97.5% chow) and 5% and 10% on the healing process. The results were evaluated measuring the length and area of the healed region on different days to conduct tensiometry experiments after complete wound healing.
The percentage of wound healing on days 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18 in the control group changed in the group treated with 2.5% HESA-A from 51.27%, 62.54%, 73.11%, 86.71% and 100% to 59.34%, 75.53%, 91.17% and 100%, respectively; in the group treated with 5% HESA-A to 77.53%, 88.27%, 95.58%, 100% and 100%, respectively; and in the group treated with 10% HESA-A to 67.81%, 92.81%, 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively.
Stress (maximum tensile force causing skin rupture) changed from 16.54 in the control group to 19.2 Newton (P<0.001), 24.23 Newton (P<0.001), and 32.12 Newton (P<0.001) in the groups treated with 2.5%, 5%, and 10% HESA-A, respectively.
Strain (tissue length under maximum strain) increased from 14.83 mm in the control group to 16.44 mm, 25.25 mm (P<0.001) and 35.96 mm (P<0.001) in the groups treated with 2.5%, 5%, and 10% HESA-A, respectively.
Our findings suggest that HESA-A may have accelerated the skin wound healing process in rat in a concentration-dependent fashion and increased tissue strength through stimulating collagen formation.

3.Influence of Bacterial Endotoxins on Bone Marrow and Blood Components
Othman A. Al-Sagair, Ezzat S. El-Daly, Ahmed A. Mousa
Pages 23 - 36
Endotoxin (Lipopolysaccharide, LPS) a component of the bacterial wall of gram-negative bacteria, has been recognized as one of the most potent bacterial products in the induction of host inflammatory responses and tissue injury and was used in this study to mimic infections. LPS induces production and release of several cytokines. In response to these cytokines, different effects of endotoxins are seen.
The effect of three types of endotoxins (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoriae and Salmonella typhimurium) on bone marrow, differential counts and peripherial blood parameters were investigated in adult rats.
Male spraguo Dawely albino rats weighing 220 - 250 g were used. They were injected i.p. (1 mg/kg body weight) with single dose of 3 types of endotoxins. Blood samples were collected from the experimental animals at 24 and 72 hours of the injection. At 72 hours the bone marrow aspirations were harvested from the femur of the rats for microscopic examination.
Endotoxins induced different changes in the cells of bone marrow. Also, lipopolysaccharide caused significant decreases in red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets counts, hemoglobin content and hematocrit percent.
Data of the present study point out to the dose of these toxins according to suitable pharmacopeia. Lemulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) test is specificly used for determination of the endotoxin limit. This recommendation should be observed to avoid the toxic effects of endotoxins.

4.Impact of High Plasma Concentrations of Dioxin and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBS) in South Indian Women with Endometriosis
Roya Rozati, Hamid A. Bakshi, Simha Baludu, R. S. Sharma
Pages 37 - 44
To estimate the levels of Dioxin and PCBs present in the plasma of women with different stages of endometriosis and relation between Dioxin, PCBs and their possible impact on the pathogenesis of endometriosis.
Design: A prospective case control study.
Setting: Department of Reproductive Medicine, Bhagawan Mahavir Medical Research centre, Maternal Health and Research Trust, and Owaisi Hospital AND Research Center Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Patient(s): 97 women with endometriosis undergoing laparoscopy and 102 controls
Intervention(s): Heparinised blood samples were collected for dioxins, PCBs estimation.
Main outcome Measure(s): The levels of dioxins and PCBs were measured via gas chromatography.
Women with endometriosis showed significantly higher concentrations of dioxin and PCBs when compared with the control group. The correlation between the concentrations of dioxin -TCDD, PCBs, and difference in the severity of endometriosis was strong and statistically significant at p<0.05 for all the four compounds PCB-1: r=+0.53; P<0.0001, PCB-5: r=+0.67; P<0.0001, PCB-29: r=+0.64; p<0.0001, PCB-98: r=+0.43; p<0.0014 and concentration of dioxin-TCDD: r=+0.36, p<0.0001.
These results suggest that women having higher concentration of Dioxin and PCBs might have an increased susceptibility to endometriosis.

5.Preparation and Evaluation of Two Special Foods in Rats with Liver Cirrhosis
Doha A. Mohamed, Sahar Y. Al-Okbi
Pages 45 - 52
Two special diets for liver cirrhosis have been formulated (I and II), prepared in bakery form and evaluated in liver cirrhotic rats. Both diets contain protein of high Fisher ratio and oil rich in medium chain triglycerides. Proximate analysis of both formulas and their contents of amino acids and fatty acids were assessed. Special diets were evaluated in cirrhotic rats. Liver cirrhosis was induced in rats by intra-peritoneal injection of CCL4 (at a dose of 0.2 ml/kg rat body weight/day for 3 consecutive days per week) for 10 weeks. Proximate analysis showed that % fat, protein and carbohydrates in formula I was 29.48, 19.3 and 35.2 and in formula II was 28.73, 19.1 and 38.1. Amino acids profile revealed that branched chain amino acids (BCAA) were 126.2 and 120 mg/g protein in formula I and II respectively. The Fisher ratio of formula I and II was 1.912 and 1.632 respectively. GLC analysis of fatty acids showed that the contents of medium chain fatty acids were 42 and 55.2% of total fatty acids in formula I and II respectively. Feeding cirrhotic rats on either of the special formula showed improved liver function reflected by significant reduction of the activity of transaminases (ALT and AST) and total bilirubin and the significant increase in total protein and albumin in plasma. There was also significant decrease in plasma level of malondialdehyde (MDA) indicating reduction in oxidative stress compared to control cirrhotic rats. Both formulas produced increase in body weight gain compared to control cirrhotic rats. In conclusion, both special formulas in the present study improved liver function and reduced oxidative stress in cirrhotic rats reflecting their potential beneficial use in patients with liver cirrhosis.

CASE REPORT
6.Successful Therapy with 2,3 Meso Dimercaptosuccinic Acid (Chemet®) in A Worker with Severe Lead Poisoning
Qusai M. Al-Mahasneh
Pages 53 - 56
Working conditions for the majority of the world's workers do not meet the minimum standards and guidelines set by national and/or international agencies (1). Lead is believed to be the most toxic metal at the workplace. Therefore, the risk can be substantially reduced by effective local exhaust ventilation systems. This case report describes disappearances of severe basophilic stippling, anemia with decreased reticulocyte count, restoration of essential enzyme activity and resolution of symptoms in a 24 year old male working in the production of lead batteries plant using 2,3 meso dimercaptosuccinic acid 30 mg/kg body weight every eight hours for five days.

LETTER TO THE EDITOR
7.Mathematical-Review: The Role of Mathematics on Human Structure
Shibendra K. Saha
Pages 57 - 58
Abstract | Full Text PDF



   
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