ISSN 2415-1297 (Online)   ISSN 2415-1300 (Print)
Volume : 27 Issue : 3 Year : 2019
Med J Islamic World Acad Sci: 19 (2)
Volume: 19  Issue: 2 - 2011
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1.Success Story of Smoke-Free Turkey
Nazmi Bilir, Hilal Özcebe
Pages 59 - 66
Tobacco smoking has been high in Turkey, being one in three (31.2%) adults smoking. Smoking prevalence showed considerable increase during the years of 1983-1999, mainly due to introduction of multinational tobacco companies into the country. Following this increase in tobacco use, major health problems such as lung cancer, heart and lung diseases increased in the country. Tobacco control activities started during 1990's, in collaboration with civil society and government initiatives. The first law on tobacco control in 1996 introduced restriction of smoking in many places, particularly at health and educational establishments and government offices, but not at hospitality industry. After more than 10 years implementation of this law, the understanding of smoke free concept was quite well adopted by the community. Then, in 2008 the law was amended to cover hospitality venues and commercial taxis. This change in the law made Turkey one of the first three countries as complete smoke free country. Positive consequences of the implementation of the law was observed as improvement of indoor air quality at restaurants, bars and tea-coffee houses, complaints of the workers at the hospitality venues and also decrease in admissions to emergency health services due to heart and respiratory conditions.

2.Chemical, Biological and Organoleptic Evaluation of Newly Formulated Therapeutic Diets for Protein Calorie Malnutrition
O.M. Metwalli, Sahar Y. Al-Okbi, Thanaa E. Hamed
Pages 67 - 74
Three supplementary food mixtures high in protein and calories were prepared using different percentage of locally produced cereals and legumes in addition to 10% skimmed milk powder in each formula to be used as therapeutic diets for infants suffering from protein energy malnutrition. These prepared mixtures were undergone chemical, biological and organoleptic evaluation. The data obtained revealed that 100g of each mixture provided 38, 28 and 20 g. protein and 382, 366 and 364 calories in formulae I, II and III respectively. The biological evaluation was carried out in comparison to three locally available food mixtures (Creacon, Gerber and Riri) comarable in protein percentage and a casein containing diet as a control group using experimental rats. The data obtained showed that body weight gain increased significantly only in case of rats fed creacon and formula II. The food and protein efficiency ratios for formulae I and II were higher compared to the control which was significant for formula II. Organoleptic evaluation revealed that formula I scored as very good, then comes formula II then at last formula III which were both scored as good.

3.Genetic Environmental Interactions (Applied Concepts in The Glorious Qur'an and The Honorable Hadith)
Bilal A.A. Ghareeb
Pages 75 - 86
The objective of this paper is to extract useful ideas from the religious texts (The Glorious Qur'an and the Traditions of the Prophet, Hadith) that are compatible with the science of genetics. The Islamic scientific miracles in the Glorious texts of are screened for relevant links with the applied science of genetics. Special concerns are focused on the domain of the influence of environment on the genetic expression of human traits notably the behavioral ones. Important relevant impacts and applications are discussed as for example our role in reorienting behaviors.
In Islam, it is believed that all humans are born innately in a good temper. Their environmental material and cultural factors fashion them on different religions, thinking manners and philosophies (in the same manner as an animal born healthy can undergo cutting off or amputation later on).
"Each child is born in a state of Fitrah "pure Muslim nature", then his parents make him a Jew, Christian or a Zoroastrian, the way an animal gives birth to a normal offspring. Have you noticed any that were born mutilated?"
Furthermore, we have a role on genetic diseases many of which are influenced by the environmental conditions. Mother's internal environment and its effects on the sex of her offspring are also evoked. There is also a role of companions in the formation of our characters, our duty vis-à-vis this issue is discussed. Important philosophical consequences are extracted like the uniqueness of God in ideally judging the actions of people, as he is the only to be able to trace norms of reactions for all our actions and reactions for every one in the world under all possible conditions! This Islamic knowledge, which predates the recent discoveries with some 1400 years, was put in service of health and solving social problems.
The methodology of this paper can be extrapolated on other authentic religious texts of which ideas are not yet explored by science! This is an important process of strengthening the conviction and the convincing capacity of Islam as a divine religion! In fact, a clear distinction is made in Islam between those who know (and seek knowledge) and those who do not!
What! he who is obedient during hours of the night, prostrating himself and standing, takes care of the hereafter and hopes for the mercy of his Lord! Say: Are those who know and those who do not know alike? Only the men of understanding are mindful (Az-Zumar, The Troops, Throngs, The Glorious Qur'an Chapter 39, Verse 9)

4.Complications and Mortality in St-Segment Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Patients
Muhammad J. Iqbal, Muhammad T. Javed, Ifaat Tahira
Pages 87 - 94
The difference in environmental conditions along with foods in the subcontinent than other parts of the world incited this work to see how complications and outcome differ in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. 240 patients (76 diabetic and 164 non-diabetic) suffering from ST-segment Elevation acute myocardial infarction were included in the study. Complications of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) and the outcome were compared between diabetics and non-diabetic patients. Different complications studied varied significantly (P<0.001) within diabetics, non-diabetics and in overall after controlling for diabetes. Complications showed similar pattern (heterogeneity test P >0.5) in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. The abnormalities including Cardiogenic shock (OR= 1.9; 95%CI = 0.85-4.22), left ventricular failure (OR = 2.5), re-infarction (OR= 2.2), arrhythmia (OR= 2.04) and ventricular septal defect (OR= 2.17) were 4.2, 4.7, 21.3, 4.2 and 85.24 times higher in diabetics, respectively. However, occurrence of post myocardial angina (OR=0.38) was low in diabetics than non-diabetics. Odds of having diastolic dysfunction were 1.8 times higher in diabetic patients. The moderate and severe LV-dysfunction was 3.3 and 2.5 times higher diabetics, while mild LV-dysfunction in was 2.1 times higher in non-diabetics. Mortality due to STEMI in diabetics was 2.3 times higher than in non-diabetics. Mortality varied significantly between different age groups in non-diabetics and in overall after controlling for diabetes. In non-diabetic group, mortality was 8.4 times higher in patients those were not given streptokinase than those were given streptokinase, while in diabetic group it was 2.5 times higher in patients were not given streptokinase than those were given streptokinase. The results indicate that the diabetics have higher risk of mortality. Inferior infarction is more serious in diabetics than non diabetics and chances of survival in streptokinase treated patients is five times in non diabetic while it about two times in diabetics. The results suggest the importance of streptokinase treatment in patients having ST-segment Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction.

5.Toxoplasma Gondii Infection in Pregnant Women with Previous Adverse Pregnancy Outcome
D.A. Mousa, M.A. Mohammad, A.B. Toboli
Pages 95 - 102
Adverse pregnancy outcome include two or more consecutive spontaneous abortions, intrauterine foetal death, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, stillbirths, early neonatal death and/or congenital anomalies. Maternal infections and infestations play a critical role in adverse pregnancy outcome. In Libya, scarce data exist on the roles of Toxoplasma gondii (T.Gondii) in the etiology of adverse pregnancy outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of T. gondii in relation to previous adverse pregnancy outcome in pregnant women. We also aimed to find out the possible risk factors of acquiring this infection in Libyan women at Benghazi region. We included 143 pregnant women with adverse pregnancy outcome who attended Gynecology and Obstetric Department in Jamhoriya Teaching Hospital over a period of six months to estimate seroprevalences of IgM and IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. Serum samples were collected and assayed using quantitative ELISA technique. Out of 143 serum sample, 64 (44.8%) were positive for Toxoplasma. IgM seropositivities to Toxoplasma were 8.4%. All of those with high IgG and IgM positive cases gave a positive history of habitual abortion. Further remarks were obtained and will be presented and stressed.

6.A Newborn Baby with Intracranial Calcification
Ramazan Özdemir
Pages 103 - 104
Abstract | Full Text PDF

7.Objective Achievements and Biological Consequences
Şinasi Özsoylu
Page 105
Although the phrase of "primum non nocere" is frequently repeated in medical education, it seems that the importance of physiology is omitted in this sense. Despite we are learning physiology at subcellular level, more every day, it has been operating in our life since beginning of the life. Therefore we should be clever enough not to disturb physiology and/or try to correct it when it is disturbed.

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