ISSN 2415-1297 (Online)   ISSN 2415-1300 (Print)
Volume : 27 Issue : 3 Year : 2019
Med J Islamic World Acad Sci: 9 (4)
Volume: 9  Issue: 4 - 1996
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1.Protective Effect of Cysteine and Vitamin E, Crocus Sativus and Nigella Sativa Extracts on Cisplatin-Induced Toxicity in Rats
Ezzat S. El Daly
Pages 105 - 118
Cisplatin [cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum (II)] is a widely used chemotherapeutic drug that is toxic to the kidney. Concurrent administration of cysteine together with vitamin E, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa reduced the toxicity of cisplatin in rats. When administered i.p. for 5 alternate days with 3 mg/kg cisplatin, cysteine (20 mg/kg) together with vitamin E (2 mg/rat) an extract of Crocus sativus stigmas (50 mg/kg) and Nigella sativa seed (50 mg/kg) significantly reduced blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine levels as well as cisplatin-induced serum total lipids increases. In contrast, the protective agents given together with cisplatin led to an even greater decrease in blood glucose than that seen with cisplatin alone. The serum activities of alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase of cisplatin-treated rats were significantly decreased, whereas the activities of glutathione reductase and isocitrate dehydrogenase were significantly increased. Addition of cysteine and vitamin E, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa in combination with cisplatin partially prevented many changes in the activities of serum enzymes. In cisplatin-treated rats, the liver activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly increased, whereas much greater changes were found in the kidneys, with increased activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and decreased activities of alkaline phosphatase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, sorbitol dehydrogenase and -glutamyl transferase, as well as a decreased phosphorylation to oxidation ratio in the mitochondria, indicating reduced adenosine triphosphate production. Also, administration of cysteine and vitamin E, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa together with cisplatin partially reversed many of the kidney enzymes changes induced by cisplatin. Cysteine together with vitamin E, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa tended to protect from cisplatin-induced falls in leucocyte counts, haemoglobin levels and mean osmotic fragility of erythrocytes and also prevented the increase in haematocrit.
The results of this study indicate a basis for the toxic effects of cisplatin, and suggest a possible way of counteracting the toxicity by introducing protective agents such as sulphydryl compounds, other antioxidants and extracts of natural products. It also appears that cells adapt to the effects of cisplatin through the induction of system that produce NADPH, which in turn compensates the decrease of free sulphydryl groups.
We conclude that cysteine and vitamin E, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa may be promising compounds for reducing cisplatin-toxic side effects including nephrotoxicity.

2.Microbial Production of Cellulases by Aspergillus Fumigatus using Wheat Straw as A Carbon Source
M. Umar Dahot, M. Hanif Noomrio
Pages 119 - 124
This study was carried out to utilize wheat straw as a carbon and energy source for the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus and production of cellulases. -glucosidase and CM-cellulose activities were assayed by using salicin and CM-cellulose as substrate. It was observed from the results that the maximum production of -glucosidase and CM-cellulase was achieved by Aspergillus fumigatus grown on H2SO4 and HCI pretreated wheat straw substrate in comparison to HNO3 and HCIO4 pretreated wheat straw.

3.Trace Element and Electrolyte Concentrations in Different Physiological States of Sahiwal Cattle
M. M. Asif, Zia- Ur- Rahman, M. Arif, I. U. Haq, I. Javed
Pages 125 - 128
The study was conducted on seven healthy Sahiwal cattle at their different physiological states (calves, 1 year; pregnant in first trimester; primiparous lactating and dry, not pregnant). The blood samples were collected from Jugular vein in heparinized test tubes. Plasma was separated and used for analysis. Non significant differences were observed in blood plasma Zn2+, Fe2+ and Na+ concentrations in calves, pregnant and milking animals. The present study also reports a non significant difference in Cu2+ concentration between the four physiological states. Significant differences in Ca2+ concentration was observed in all the animals at different physiological states. No significant differences were observed in blood plasma Mg2+ concentration between calves and milking cows. Potassium (K+) concentration was not significantly different between the pregnant and milking cows but significantly different among the calves and the dry cows.

4.Role of Plasmids in Antibiotic Resistance of Campylobacter Spp. Isolated from Children
Aylan A. Ali, Ghalib H. Al-Bakri, Duhuha S. Saliih
Pages 129 - 134
Six clinical isolates of Campylobacter were examined for the occurrence of conjugative plasmids carrying antibiotic resistance markers. Kanamycin resistance was conjugally transferred from donors to recipients in all cases which indicated that it is plasmid mediated while the resistance to Erythromycin was considered to be chromosomally mediated because it was never transferred by conjugation. The Tetracycline resistance in one Campylobacter strain was encoded on a self-transmissible plasmid, while in other donor strains it was considered to be chromosomally mediated or carried on non-conjugative plasmid because it failed to transfer by conjugation. The Ampicillin and Kanamycin resistance markers of C. jejuni D101 were co-transferred by conjugation to C. coli A9 which indicated that both markers are on the same plasmid.
Occurrence of Ampicillin resistance gene on a plasmid in Campylobacter is reported here for the first time. The Erythromycin and Tetracycline resistance genes of C. hyointestinalis A14 and C. jejuni D101 proved to be chromosomally mediated because chromosomal DNA from both strains were successfully transformed to sensitive strains of Campylobacter which then became resistant to Erythromycin and Tetracycline.

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