ISSN 2415-1297 (Online)   ISSN 2415-1300 (Print)
Volume : 27 Issue : 3 Year : 2019
Med J Islamic World Acad Sci: 15 (2)
Volume: 15  Issue: 2 - 2005
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1.Study of Correlation between Serum Zinc Levels and Telomerase Activity in Bladder Cancer Patients
N. Zarghami, J. Hallajzadeh, S. Samadzadeh, D. Hasanzadeh, S. Jabbarzadeh
Pages 47 - 54
Telomerase is an active gene existing in almost all human cancerous cells. This enzyme is essential for immortality and recycling of these living cells, however it normally has not been expressed in the somatic cells. Role of zinc as a probably interfering microelement in telomerase gene expression and activity in human bladder cancer is the main subject of this study. Thirty three voided urine samples were gathered from patients, which were previously identified as bladder carcinoma cases using cytological methods. They had previously not given any treatment. Telomerase activity was determined using polymerase chain reaction, which refers to the telomeric repeat amplification protocol. In order to distinguish the fine signals, obtained the procedure was linked to an ELISA system (TRAP assay). The patientsí grades and stages were determined independently through cystoscopy. Also, the serum zinc levels of these patients and control groups measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). As a result; 17 (51%) of the 33-bladder carcinoma tested patients revealed positive results for cytology, whereas using TRAP assay presence of the telomerase was positive in all of the tested bladder carcinoma cases. Only 30% (3 of 10) of the grade I tumors, 83.3% (5 of 6) of the grade II tumors and 50% (9 of 18) of the grade III tumors were diagnosed by cytology. The detection accuracy rates was statistically significant (100% for telomerase vs. 51% for cytology). The difference of relative telomerase activity (RTA) values between grades I, II and III was not statistically significant. Difference of serum zinc levels between the cases and control groups were significant (p= 0.04). Zinc levels in the both affected genders had dominant decreases, besides this shift was slightly more significant (p=0.04) in the female patients. In all, there was an inverse significant correlation between the RTA and serum zinc level in the case group (r= -0.060, p= 0.48). In conclusion our results showed a reverse relationship between zinc deficiency and increasing telomerase activity in our series of bladder cancer.

2.Is There A Balance between Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense System during Development?
R. G. Ahmed
Pages 55 - 63
For the reason of the biological importance of antioxidant enzymes and reactive oxygen species, it was deemed important to survey the literature for reports on the relation between them. The main aim of this overview not only uncovered the baseline works on aspects of prooxidant and antioxidant processes in different species, but also illuminated the mechanism of the free radical theory of aging. Taken together, this review suggest that the decline in levels of free radicals revealed a coupled with increased antioxidant enzyme activities and the reverse is true, but also critical balance between the generation of oxygen free radicals and antioxidant defense enzymes during development. However, these results are not still entirely accepted because of the difficulties of the direct observation of the active oxygen species in biological systems due to their short lifetime.

3.Effects of Bacterial Endotoxin on Some Metabolites and Enzymes in Rat Serum
ABD El Rahman A. El Garawany, Othman A. Al Sagair, Ezzat S. El Daly, Kamal A. El Shaikh, Mahmoud H. El Gebaly, Ahmed A. Mousa
Pages 65 - 72
The effects of bacterial endotoxins (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhimurium) on glucose and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels and aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were studied. Three groups of rats were injected (1 mg/kg body weight, i.p.) with three types of bacterial endotoxins (E. coli, K. pneumoniae and S. typhimurium) as a single dose. The control group was injected i.p. (1 mg/kg) in 0.9% normal saline. Blood sampling was performed from the orbital vein plexus after 24 and 72 hr of injection. Glucose level was increased significantly after 24 hr of after each 3 solutions of endotoxin. Its level showed non-significant decrease after 72 hr post-treatment. However, endotoxins caused significant increases in BUN, ASAT and LDH at 24 and 72 hr post-treatment. On the other hand, the ALAT activity was significantly decreased after the referred observation periods of endotoxins injection. The variation in serum glucose level after 24 and 72 hr post-treatment may be referred to different reasons. On the other hand, the increase of BUN concentration may be due to the toxic effect of bacterial endotoxins resembling to that occurring in renal damage and impairment of renal function. However, the changes in serum aminotransferases and LDH activities may be due to endotoxins induced hepatic microcirculatory disturbance and to the subsequent liver injury and tissue hypoxia.

4.Family Education and Social Adjustment of Psychiatric Clients
GH. Reza Ghassemi, GH. Ali Assadulahi, Shikha Mallik
Pages 73 - 80
Efficacy of psycho-educational programme in promotion of social and family functioning among Iranian psychiatric clients is the theme of this study. One hundred and seventy schizophrenics with 174 clients with mood disorders were included in the present study and adopting Solomonís experimental design they were assigned into four groups: 2 experimental and 2 control groups for each illness category. Key family members from experimental groups participated in a weekly educational programme for a duration of six months. Batteries of tests were used to ascertain family's skills in management of client's verbal and non verbal behaviours. Baseline data with those after intervention, i.e., 6 and 18 months were compared, using SPSS programme and running statistical tests such as t test and ANOVA. Comparing the experimental and control groups, more attitudinal, cognitive and behavioural changes among families followed by more desirable role performance ability by the clients in experimental groups were observed. Results indicated that family education can bring about desirable changes in the family dynamics and better outcome of psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric social workers can use psycho educational programme in imparting necessary skills for effective management of verbal and non verbal behaviours of psychiatric patients in the family.

5.Effects of Vitamin E on Food Intake and Body Weight in Rats Exposed to Restraint Stress
Nur A.M. Fahami, Nafeeza M. Ismail, Khalid B.A. Khalid
Pages 81 - 86
Many investigators have shown that stress suppresses food intake and reduces body weight in rats. The effect of vitamin E on body weight and food intake in rats exposed to stress were studied. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 80) were fed with either normal chow, vitamin E deficient diet or vitamin E with or without oral supplementation of either tocopherol, tocotrienol or Tocomin at 60mg/kg body weight. The rats were treated with these different diet regimes for 28 days prior to exposure to stress. Repetitive stress was applied, whereby the rats were restrained 2 hours daily for 4 consecutive days. The body weight and food intake was measured, weekly and after exposure to stress. The findings showed that vitamin E deficiency induced by feeding rats with vitamin E deficient diet for 28 days resulted in significantly lower body weight and food intake compared to the control animals given (normal chow). Supplementation with vitamin E in different forms, tocopherol, tocotrienol or Tocomin to the deficient diet was unable to increase the body weight or food intake, where both parameters were comparable with rats fed with deficient diet alone. It is possible that the dose of the vitamin E given was inadequate to maintain the food consumption and prevent the drop in body weight. Exposure to stress caused a further reduction in both the food intake and body weight in all groups and this suggests that the normal level of vitamin E in normal chow nor the supplementation with tocopherol and tocotrienol at the dose 60mg/kg was able to protect against changes in the body weight and food intake due to stress. We therefore conclude that vitamin E deficiency and stress can reduce food intake and cause a reduction in body weight. Stress can worsen the status of the two parameters and in vitamin E supplementation at 60 mg/kg body weight is not sufficient to prevent the changes in the body weight or food intake due to vitamin E deficiency or stress.

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