ISSN 2415-1297 (Online)   ISSN 2415-1300 (Print)
Volume : 30 Issue : 1 Year : 2023
Med J Islamic World Acad Sci: 3 (3)
Volume: 3  Issue: 3 - 1990
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1.The Kuwait Foundation for The Advancement of Sciences: A Successful Model
Fakhruddin A. Daghestani
Pages 171 - 173
It is a well known fact that research and development (R and D) has not yet become among the top priorities in Muslim countries and that financial and human resources devoted to R and D and to other scientific and technological (S and T) activities are still very low. Furthermore, R and D expenditure in these countries is almost entirely contributed by the public sector due to lack of interest in or lack of demand for R and D by the private sector. Several Muslim countries tried through various means to stimulate the private sector to invest in R and D and other S and T activities, but success stories are very few indeed and one of these successes is the model adopted by Kuwait through the establishment of the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences (KFAS). Therefore, this short note will dwell on the nature and structure of KFAS and on its operations for the purpose of extracting lessons that can be learned by other Muslim countries for increasing the involvement of the private sector in the advancement of sciences that can provide the momentum for accelerating the socio-economic development. We begin in this note by providing some S and T indicators in Muslim countries as compared to OECD member states to show the existing vast gap between these groups. The subsequent sections dwell on KFAS and on the lessons learned.

2.Synthesis of Condensed 1,2,4-Triazolo-Heterocycles
Mohammed A. E. Shaban, Adel Z. Nasr, Mamdouh A. M. Taha
Pages 174 - 179
Cyclization of 2-hydrazino-1, 3-benzothiazole, 2-hydrozinoquioline, 2-hydrazinolepidine,
and 2-hydrazino-pyridine with one-carbon cyclizing agents such as triethyl orthoformate, ethyl chloroformate, urea, phenylthiourea, and carbon disulfide gave 3-substituted-1,2,4-triazolo (3,4, -b) 1, 3-benzothiazoles, 3-substituted-1,2,4-triazolo (4,3-a) quinolines, 3-substituted-1,2,4-triazolo (4,3-a) quinolines, 3-substituted-1,2,4-triazolo (4,3-a) lepidines and 3-substituted-1,2,4-triazolo (4,3-a) pyridines respectively. Reactions with acetic acid and acetic anhydride gave the corresponding acetyl hydrazines which were cyclized to the 3-methyl 1,2,4-triazolo-heterocyles. Ring closure with phenyl isocyanate and phenyl isothiocyanate, gave the intermediate 4-phenylsemicarbazides and 4-phenylthiosemicarbazides which, upon fusion, afforded the corresponding 3-oxo- and 3-thioxo-1,2,4-triazolo-heterocyles. The 3-oxo-compounds were also obtained when 2-chloroquinoloni or 2-chlorolepidine was fused with semicarbazide hydrochloride.

3.Synthesis and Analgesic Potential of Some Substituted Pyrrolidines
M. N. Aboul-Enein, S. El-Difrawy, N. A. Abdallah, N. M. Khalifa, M. Y. Ebeid, W. Werner
Pages 180 - 184
A series of 3-aroyloxy-1-methyl-5-phenyl pyrrolidines (5a-k) was prepared and screened for their analgesic potency as well as their local anaesthetic activity.

4.The Immunosuppressive Effect of Bromocriptine in Rats
Mustafa Akaydın, Gülsen Öner, Tuncer Karpuzoglu
Pages 185 - 188
In order to investigate the role of bromocriptine (BCR) on immune response we have undertaken an experimental study and its results were compared with those of another immunosuppressive agent, Cyclosporine A (CsA). 63 mole Swiss albino rats were divided into 4 groups. Twenty two of those were used as a control and received intraperitoneal saline for 4 days. The other groups were treated with 3 mg/Kg CsA, 200 g/Kg of BCR and the combination of these two drugs for the same period. CsA treatment caused significant decrease in T cell proliferation and macrophage phagocytic activity, BCR showed similar depression both in the response of T cell and phagocytic activity. However the combination of these two drugs showed no additive effect on immune system. As a conclusion, a PRL secretion inhibitor BCR has been found to be a potent immunosuppressive agent which is comparable to CsA.

5.Humoral Immunity in Libyan Patients with Ulcerative Colitis
A. S. M. Giasuddin, J. Madzarovova -nohejlova, M. M. Ziu
Pages 189 - 194
The aetiology of ulcerative colitis remains uncertain. Most of the clinical manifestations are related to inflammation. Also, the most frequently used drugs in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, sulphasalazine and corticosteroids, have expressed anti-inflammatory properties. In our present study we have investigated serum levels of complements (C3, C4) and immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD, IgE) in 29 Libyan patients with ulcerative colitis (age: 1757 years; sex: 17 males, 12 females) and 29 healthy Libyans (age: 1859 years; sex: 16 males, 13 females) as controls. It was observed that at active stage of the disease (pretreatment) serum levels of C4, IgA and IgE were significantly elevated, whereas C3 levels were significantly lowered compared to control subjects (p<0.00001). Follow-up studies showed that C3 and C4 levels were brought to normal levels at remission after 2 months of therapy with different drug regimens and at 1 year of maintenance therapy. But serum IgA and IgE levels remained significantly elevated (p<0.00001) even at remission after treatments with different drug regimens, although they were lowered to some extent, but not significantly. The clinical evaluations at 2 months of treatment and at 1 year of maintenance therapy fulfilled the criteria for remission of the disease activity. Our results were therefore taken as indications that alternative pathway activation of the complement system was present which may be responsible for the aggravated inflammation present in ulcerative colitis. It has been proposed that complement activation in our patients may be mediated through IgA and/or IgE-containing immune complexes formed secondary to immune response against initial, but unknown, assaulting agent.

6.Effect of Hypothermia on Rat Brain ATPase Activity
G. Abilova
Pages 195 - 197
The study deals with the activity of Na, K-ATPase and Mg-ATPase in rat sub cellular fractions and cerebral cortex homogenates and its response to 20°C hypothermia during 1 and 3 hours with the intra-abdominal injection of neuropeptide dalargin. The results show that the prolonged hypothermia for 1 and 3 hours intensifies the activity of Na, K-ATPase in all examined fractions with the only exception Mg-ATPase in mitochondrial fraction where 3 hours hypothermia brings the activity down. Intra-abdominal injection of dalargin (200g/kg) considerably abates the activity of Na, KATPase during 1 hour hypothermia. Under the discussion are the possible causes that advance the activity of Na, K-ATPase with the influence of hypothermia.

7.Renal and Bone Profiles in Saudi Individuals with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Arjumand S. Warsy, Halima Medani, Mohsen A. F. El-Hazmi, Mohamed M. Madkour, H. A. Aman, Robby Bacchus, Nedret Kılıç
Pages 198 - 203
The renal and bone profiles were investigated in Saudi systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and the results were compared with normal age and sex matched controls. The results showed that one or more renal profile abnormalities were present in 48.5% of the patients though the severity of renal involvement differed from one patient to another. The rest of the patients (i.e. 51.5%) had no renal involvement. One or more bone profile abnormalities were encountered in 33.3% of the SLE patients, majority of these patients had only a single abnormal test (24.2%). This case-control study shows the very heterogeneous presentation of SLE patient, in biochemical analyses, even among the individuals of same ethnic origin.

8.Histopathological Studies on Dead Larvae of Pectinophora Gossypiella (Saunders) Experimentally Killed with -Endotoxin of Bacillus Thuringiensis (Sotto)
M. Rafi Sheikh, Dilnawaz Sheikh, S. Baqir Naqvi
Pages 204 - 206
Newly hatched larvae of pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) were fed in 1020 g/ml -Endotoxin, B. thuringiensis in an artificial diet. Microtomical studies on dead larvae were carried out. 5 thick sections revealed varied histopathological changes leading to disorientation and rupture of epithelial cells of the gut which ultimately may have lead to paralysis and death of the test insect.

9.Appearance and Accumulation of Streptococcus Faecalis Chaindisrupting/Lytic Factor in Fluid Media
M. Rafi Shaikh, Dilnawaz Shaikh
Pages 207 - 208
A lytic system is described in S. faecalis zymogenes (Group D) which begins to show influid media in exponential phase and attains highest activity before stationary phase. The system disruptslong chains into shorter aggregates by lysing the cocci distributed randomly in the chains.

10.Production of B-Vitamins by Heterotrophic Planktonic Bacteria Isolated from Littoral Zone of The Lake Jeziorak
Wojciech Donderski, Malgorzata Sokol
Pages 209 - 213
Different genera and groups of heterotrophic planktonic bacteria of the littoral zone of the lake Jeziorak produced different B-group vitamins. Most numerous among the planktonic bacteria of this zone of the lake were biotin producers and least numerous were organisms synthesizing riboflavin and nicotinic acid. Most bacteria produced one or two vitamins. Three or more vitamins were produced by only a few strains. In autumn no strain produced all five vitamins studied in this work.

11.Lymphocyte Sub-Populations in A Group of Heroin Addicts in Pakistan
Rehana Vahidy, Samina Akber
Pages 214 - 217
A study on a group of fifty heroin abusers was conducted to analyze their immunocompetence. Absolute numbers of lymphocytes and their sub-populations in the peripheral blood were used as the parameter. Sub-populations of lymphocytes were distinguished on the basis of their ability to form rosettes with speep's erythrocytes. Another group of fifty individuals comprising of non-abusers was studied as control. The mean value for total lymphocytes and the T-cells in non-abusers were within the expected normal range, while those obtained for the heroin abusers were below normal value. Difference between the cell counts of the two groups were statistically significant. The mean of non-rosetting cells of the two groups of population studied did not differ significantly. Results indicate a marked deficiency in cellular immune compartment of the subjects with not much impairment of the humoral immune system. The chi-square test for independence between lymphocyte counts and drug abuse revealed a degree of association with 88% confidence.

12.Rotavirus-Associated Diarrhoeal Disease in Libyan Infants up to One Year of Age
A. S. M. Giasuddin, G. Boryswick, A. Abusedra
Pages 218 - 220
The incidence of rotavirus-associated diarrhea in 390 cases of hospital-based Libyan neonates (age: •28 days) and infants (age: < 28 days to 1 year) with symptoms of diarrhea and vomiting was studied over a period of 12 consecutive months. Rotaviral antigen in the fecal specimens was detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique using Enzygnost reagents of Behringwerke, West Germany. Fecal specimens were assigned as 'positive' or 'negative' for rotaviral antigen as per criteria of the assay kit. The overall rotaviral incidence (% ± standard error) was 16.9% ± 1.8 (66/390) with 8.1% ± 2.2 (11/135) and 21.5% ± 2.5 (55/255) occurring in neonates and infants respectively (Neonates vs Infants: 2=11.31, p< 0.001). The monthly incidence showed seasonal variations with higher percentages occurring during February (25%, 6/24), May (23,5%, 8/34), June (21%, 8/38), September (26.6%, 12/45), and December (20%, 6/30). The significance of these findings are discussed and compared with reports from other countries.

13.The Incidence of Nodule in Patients with Goiter
Erkan Ibis, Radife Akcura, Güner Erbay, Gülseren Aras, Hulusi Ozkaya, Asım Akın
Pages 221 - 224
A total of 4842 patients with goiter were studied by scintigraphic and ultrasonographic examination. We observed 2815 (58.1 %) nodular goiter and 2027 (41.9 %) diffuse goiter in total number of these cases. It was observed that the incidence of nodular goiter increased by increasing of age in both sexes while the reverse finding for diffuse goiter. The study suggests that higher incidence of nodular goiter in Turkey than hitherto appreciated and we are led to believe that this kind of goiter is one of the major health issues in Turkey.

14.The Incidence of Post-Operative Goiter Recurrence
Erkan Ibis, Radife Akcura, Güner Erbay, Gülseren Aras, Asım Akın
Pages 225 - 228
A study was conducted on the incidence of post-operative non-toxic goiter in 206 cases. The average duration of post-operative observation was 7.8 years. The incidence of recurrence was 30.7% in the 26 cases where thyroxine was used in sufficient doses (0.15 mg/day or over) and regularly in the postoperative period; and 46.9% in the 32 cases where thyroxine was used in insufficient doses (0.10 mg/day) and regularly. Whereas it was found 71.4% in the 49 cases where thyroxine usage was irregular and in insufficient doses; and 81.8% in the 99 cases where there was no use of drugs. It was observed that the incidence of recurrence was perceptively reduced in the patients who used thyroxine regularly and in sufficient doses as compared to those who use irregularly or not at all. It was concluded that in Turkey, where iodine deficiency is a major contributory factor to the prevalence of goiter, post-operative usage of thyroxine is necessary in reducing the incidence of post-operative goiter.

15.Radon Signals for Earthquake Prediction and Geological Prospection
Hameed Ahmed Khan, Muhammad Tufail, Aziz Ahmed Qureshi
Pages 229 - 231
Recent work carried out at PINSTECH and elsewhere shows that radon signals can be used to predict the arrival of an earthquake and to locate oil, geothermal energy sources, and uranium deposits. The SSNTD-Laboratory (PINSTECH) is presently exploiting it for uranium it for uranium exploration in Pakistan and is developing an earthquake warning signal system using Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTD).

16.Simultaneous Occurrence of Gastric Carcinoma in The Non-Twin Brothers: Reports of Two Cases
Tülay Bakır, Yavuz Özoran
Pages 232 - 234
Gastric carcinoma is a rare entity in brothers. A 54 year-old woman complained of epigastric pain and weight loss was found to have cancer in the body of the stomach. Her symptomatic brother was also evaluated and found to have carcinoma in the same region of the stomach. Although histological types of the cancer in the brothers were different, the associated changes of the gastric mucosa similar in both. Kinship studies suggest that carcinoma of the stomach tends to occur more frequently in certain families, but it is difficult to distinguish genetic from environmental influences in these cases. The finding of simultaneously gastric carcinoma in the non-twin brothers may suggest that environmental influences combined with genetic factors are important in the development of gastric neoplasia.

17.A Study of Hormone Profiles in Critically Ill Patients: An Evidence for Hypothalamic Suppression
I. A. Shaafie, A. S. M. Giasuddin, M. M. Ziu, M. N. Khazi
Pages 235 - 238
This study was undertaken to define hormonal (thyroid, gonadal and pituitary) changes in 25 critically ill Libyan male patients including acute myocardial infarction (AMI: 5 cases, age 45-62 years), congestive cardiac failure (CCF: 5 cases, age 44-56 years), respiratory failure (RF: 5 cases, age 34-48 years), acute renal failure (ARF: 5 cases, age 22-42 years), and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA: 5 cases, age 35-60 years). Serum T3, T4, fT4, TSH, testosterone (Test), LH, FSH and prolactin (PRL) were estimated by RIA technique in patients during acute illness, clinical recovery and follow up as well as in Control Subjects (CS). During acute illness T3 levels in all the patients were significantly reduced compared to CS (p<0.05). T4 levels were also significantly reduced in RF (p<0.02) and DKA (p<0.05) but remained unaffected in AMI, CCF and ARF (p>0.05). Despite low T3 and low normal T4 levels during acute illness, TSH level was not elevated suggesting suppression of its secretion due to critical illness. During recovery phase, T3 and T4 levels were raised to normality (p<0.05) with marked elevation of TSH level (P<0.05) suggesting recovery of hypothalamopituitary thyroid axis from stress inhibition of critical illness. The rise in T3 and T4 levels was observed to be related to the rise in TSH level suggesting that TSH may have an essential role in restoring T3 and T4 levels to normal during recovery from critical illness. During follow up, T3, T4 and TSH levels were within normal ranges (p>0.05). The fT4 levels remained normal during various phases of illness. Serum TEST, LH and FSH levels were depressed significantly during the phase of acute illness (p<0.05) except that LH levels remained normal in CCF, ARF and DKA (p<0.05). During clinical recovery serum TEST, LH and FSH levels rose to normal suggesting existence of transient hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in critical illness. Serum PRL levels were very high during acute illness (p<0.02) which fell to normal levels during clinical recovery (p>0.05) except in case of RF suggesting suppression of tuberohypophyseal dopaminergic neuron system in critical illness. During follow up the hormone levels were observed to be within normal ranges (p>0.05). Therefore, the hormonal changes observed during the phase of acute illness in critically ill patients and suggesting hypothyroidism and hypogonadism were transitory in nature and taken as evidence for central suppression, most probably hypothalamic.

18.Endogenous Dopamine in Cardiovascular Tissues of Rabbit
Shahid Rasheed, Fauzia Rasheed
Pages 239 - 243
Present study involved the quantitative estimation of dopamine in cardiovascular tissues of rabbit. Tissues of heart, carotid and femoral arteries and aortae as well as blood were included in this study. Among all the tissues, carotid arteries showed highest dopamine contents while among the tissues of heart auricles contained highest concentration of Dopamine. The results suggested a possible physiological role of dopamine at the level of carotid arteries.
However, further studies are required to establish the role of cardiovascular dopamine receptors in the over all cardiovascular homeostasis.

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