ISSN 2415-1297 (Online)   ISSN 2415-1300 (Print)
Volume : 30 Issue : 1 Year : 2023
Med J Islamic World Acad Sci: 4 (1)
Volume: 4  Issue: 1 - 1991
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1.Biology as A Basic Science in Turkiye
Yusuf Vardar
Pages 1 - 2
We all are familiar with the problems of our century, such as; insufficient energy sources, inadequate supply of food, lack of industrial raw materials, the loss of natural balance in ecology due to pollution, increase in world population and health-related problems, decrease in fertile land and soil erosion, the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. All these and many more complex and vital problems with social, economic, technical and communal impact desperately need the application of fundamental biology. The value added by putting biological principles into effect is actually apparent. It all points out towards the effectiveness and importance of biology in world economies.
On the other hand biotechnology, which utilizes biological systems as technological tools in engineering processes, has emphasized the role of basic biology even more so as a recent development.

2.Natural Resources Development in The Islamic Countries: an overview
Mehmet S. Ketene
Pages 3 - 5
Water, soil, air and sunlight are the fundamentals of the life and are interdependent with flora and fauna which are considered as ‘renewable natural resources’. Composition of air and sunlight (as climatic factors) are abundant and practically constant all over the world. Within limits the soil mantle is also constant. Water alone, therefore, is the limiting factor for flora and fauna on earth. Three fourths of the earth surface is water, but the bulk of it is unfit for sustaining life.
Scientific evaluation of renewable natural resources in the Islamic Countries, need detailed knowledge and data of the following:
- Climatic factors, as sunlight, temperature, humidity, precipitation and winds.
- Land and soil survey and classification.
- Hydrological data as overland flow, underground water, rivers, lakes, reservoirs.
- Vegetation cover, as forests, ranges and agricultural plants.
- Wildlife as mammals, reptiles, birds and water life.
To improve the situation of natural resources in the Islamic Countries good planning for their development is necessary. This requires proper education and training of the needed man power for wise management and use of all renewable natural resources.

3.Mollusc Shells Found at The Yarımburgaz Cave
Engin Meriç, Mehmet Sakınç, Mehmet Özdogan, F. Açkurt
Pages 6 - 9
The Yarimburgaz Cave is formed in the Eocene limestones located in the Catalca Peninsula of the Istanbul Province, near the northern shore of the Kücükcekmece lagoon, 2 km north from Altinsehir village. This study is on the systematics and ecology as well as environmental conditions of molluscs recovered in the clayey fill of the Chalcolithic layer of the cave.

4.A Coaxial Double Cylindrical Tepc for Microdosimetry of Neutrons <850 keV in Mixed Fields of Faster Neutrons
Elias Saion, D. E. Watt
Pages 10 - 13
A new low pressure tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) in coaxial double cylindrical form has been developed to measure separately the microdosimetric spectrum from any desired energy band of neutrons in the presence of mixed field of faster neutrons. Details are given of the construction, measured gas gain and resolution characteristics and some applications for measurement of radiation quality of neutrons <850 keV of radioactive neutron sources.

5.New Approaches to Design Digital Phase Shifters over The Complete Phase Plane
Binboga S. Yarman
Pages 14 - 25
In this theoretical paper, four different circuit configurations are proposed to design 0°-360° wide range, low loss balanced phase shifters. Each configuration utilizes 3 pin diodes. As a consequence of this work, it is straightforward to construct 180° phase shifting cells for multibit phase array antenna systems using 3 pin diodes. Operation of the new circuits is based upon the phase shifting properties of symmetric low/highpass 3-element LC ladders. Assuming the utilization of lossless pin diodes and ideal reactive element, explicit design equations are presented. A numerical method, which includes the diode losses as well as component parasitic, is also described to design practical phase shifters with minimum balanced loss at a given operating frequency. Examples are included to exhibit the use of explicit design formulas and computer simulations are performed to analyze the loss and phase characteristics of the new circuits. It is expected that new configurations will find application in the commercial and especially military large array antenna systems over the EHF band to be implemented as Microwave Monolithic Integrated Circuits (MMIC).

6.Volatile Components of Grape Leaves
Kaousar A. H. Hebash, H. M. Fadel, Mervat M. A. Soliman
Pages 26 - 28
The volatile constituents in different grape leaves variaties (Gazaz, Banati, Baladi, Biz El-Khanza) have been investigated by gas liquid chromatography. On polar and non-polar phase. Extraction of aroma concentrate was done by steam distillation method. Clear quantitative differences exist between the amounts of hexenal, trans-2-hexenal and cis-3-hexenal of grape leaves of the four varieties.

7.Changes in The Biochemistry of The Hemolymph of Plodia Interpunctella after Treatment with Bacillus Thuringiensis
R. Aboul-Ela, M. Y. Kamel, H. S. Salama, A. El-Moursy, A. Abdel-Razek
Pages 29 - 35
The biochemical changes in the hemolymph of P. interpunctella larvae as a result of treatment with B. thuringiensis showed that the total carbohydrate and protein concentrations were not significantly changed. The electrophoretic patterns of the hemolymph protein showed 10 different bands of which six showed great variation in the control and the treated samples. The change in lipid concentration showed a double fold increase after treatment with B. thuringiensis. The total amino acids, on the other hand, showed no quantitative differences in the hemolymph of normal and treated larvae. Analysis of the hemolymph revealed the presence of 15 amino acids. Serine, proline, glycine, alanine, valine, leucine and lysine exhibited quantitative decrease, while aspartic acid, threonine, isoleucine, tyrosine, phenyl alanine and arginine showed an obvious increase after treatment of the larvae with B. thuringiensis. An increase of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and manganese ions, and a decrease in phosphorous, ferric, zinc and copper ions, were also detected after treatment.

8.Effect of 2-Methoxy Phenacyl Nicotinium Bromide on Serum Total Cholesterol and Serum Transaminases
M. Arif, Z. S. Saify, S. Rashid, A. B. Rehman, M. Ahmed
Pages 36 - 39
A derivative of nicotinic acid 2-methoxy Phenacyl Nicotinium Bromide was synthesized in our laboratory with the object to screen out its biochemical Pharmacological activities. The result of this compound was found to be highly significant as antilipemic, anticholesterolemic agent,
but no significant effect was observed on Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (SGPT) and Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT).

9.The Problem of AIDS in Eastern Libya
A. S. M. Giasuddin
Pages 40 - 44
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a fatal disease, the victims of which were previously healthy and had no history of immunodeficiency. The victims of AIDS die of a variety of opportunistic infections which develop due to acquired inability of the patients to mount cellular as well as humoral immunity. The human immunodeficiency virus types I (HIV-1) has been implicated as the causal agent of AIDS. Regarding the mechanism of pathogenesis, HIV-1 enters susceptible cells through binding to HIV-1 -specific receptor which is closely related to CD4 antigen of Thelper/inducer lymphocytes; cells other than CD4+ lymphocytes has now been shown to be infected by HIV-1. Infections through sexual contact, blood and body fluids, and from mother to child remain the main modes of transmission. The sero-epidemiological studies conducted so far in Benghazi have failed to find antibody to HIV-1 in eastern Libyans, and there has been no report of any case of AIDS from eastern Libya yet as of November 1990. Homosexuality, heterosexual promiscuity, prostitution and intravenous drug abuse are not expected to exist in Libyan society. Therefore, it seems at present that the traditional social life and social behavior pattern of eastern Libyans may be helpful in keeping the HIV-1 away from eastern Libya. Perhaps, a sero-epidemiological study of a second retrovirus HIV-2 should also be undertaken in eastern Libya and only then, can any definite conclusion be drawn about the problem of AIDS in eastern Libya.

10.Altered Lymphocyte Subpopulatıons in Children Suffering from Recurrent Multiple Infections
Rehana Vahidy, Samina Akbar
Pages 45 - 49
Children suffering from a variety of chronic and recurrent infections are suspected to be deficient in one or more than one compartment of their immune system. Peripheral blood lymphocytes of a group of 30 such children were bioassayed through E-rosetting. Thirty healthy children were also included as controls. Significantly lower means of total leukocytes, total lymphocytes and rosetting lymphocytes were obtained with sick children as compared to the respective values for the healthy children. However, the mean non-rosetting cells of the diseased children was 20% higher than that of the controls. The phenomenon is discussed. Plausible association of altered lymphocyte population, autoimmune disorders and malignancies is discussed as well. A general lymphocytopenia even in the healthy children is also being reported.

11.Potentiation of B. Thuringiensis against S. Littoralis as Affected by Its Host Plants
H. S. Salama, M. M. Matter, S. Salem
Pages 50 - 53
Second instar larvae of the cotton leaf worm Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) showed obvious differences in their susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis when fed on treated foliage of different host plants. Rapid growth on lettuce plant allowed the larvae to tolerate more doses of the pathogen by developing into more resistant stages. On the other hand, plants which do not support full growth as onions and cabbage, showed a great stress on the insect. Slower rate of insect development caused its exposure for long periods to the impact of the disease. The feeding behavior of young larvae on different host plants was also considered as factors influencing the efficacy of B. thuringiensis.

12.Production of B-Vitamins by Heterotrophic Planktonic Bacteria Isolated from Pelagic Zone of The Lake Jeziorak
Wojciech Donderski
Pages 54 - 57
It was found that up to 85% of heterotrophic planktonic bacteria of the pelagic zone of the Lake Jeziorak were capable to produce at least one vitamin of B-group. The most numerous were organisms synthesizing folic acid. The least numerous were producers of biotin. Most bacteria produced one vitamin, only a few strains produced four vitamins synchronically.

13.Liver Function Profiles in Saudi Nationals with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
A. S. Warsy, H. Medani, M. A. F. El-Hazmi, M. M. Madkour, H. A. Aman, R. Bacchus, N. Kılıç
Pages 58 - 62
Liver function tests were investigated in Saudi patients suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and compared with the results obtained in a group of age and sex matched ontrols. The results showed that the mean for total protein and total bilirubin were not statistically different in the patient and the control group. However, albumin, A/G ratio and cholesterol were significantly lower, while globulins, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), and alkaline phosphatase were significantly elevated. Hypoalbuminemia was the most frequent abnormality and was encountered in 65.6% of these patients. This paper present our findings and discusses the results in the light of the studies reported in literature.

14.Mega Dose Intravenous Methylprednisolone for Treatment of Malignant Osteopetrosis
Şinasi Özsoylu
Pages 63 - 66
Two infants with recessive (Malignant) osteopetrosis were treated with intravenous methylprednisolone (daily, 30 mg/kg for 3 days, 20 mg/kg for 4 days, then subsequently 10,5 and 2 mg/kg a week) followed by 1/mg/kg till the hemoglobin level reached 11 g/dl for 34 and 62 days. Treatment was continued with oral prednison (2.5 or 5 mg) for 37 and 34 months duration. The liver and spleen in both patients became almost normal in size with the elevation of the platelet count and hemoglobin level to normal with a decrease of reticulocyte count and normoblastemia, and needle aspiration showed their bone marrow to be normocellular. Plasma hemoglobin and alkaline phosphatase decreased to normal with the elevation of haptoglobin levels. Growth and development became fairly appropriate for their ages though both had macrocrania and there was exophtalmus in one. With the exception of Cushingoid appearance during mega dose administration they did not show any important side effects of corticosteroid such as hyperglycemia and growth retardation.

15.Adenosine Deaminase Measurements and T-Lymphocyte Counts in The Blood and Pleural Fluid of Malignant and TBC Pleurisy Patients
Tülin Yılmaz, Ahmet Saltık, Kamil Topal, Erol Çakır
Pages 67 - 70
Adenosine deaminase (ADA), absolute lymphocyte, % and absolute T-lymphocyte values in the blood and pleural fluid have been evaluated in 16 tb pleurisy, 14 malignant pleurisy patients and in 17 controls. A very significant (p<0.001) pleural lymphocytic infiltration has been observed in patients of the tuberculous pleurisy when compared to the peripheral blood. The minimum ADA activity in pleural fluid has been determined as 38.8 U/L in tb pleurisy patients while it is 28.4 U/L as the maximum in the patients of malignant pleurisy (p<0.001). In the same respect, pleural fluid/blood ratios of ADA levels are 7.14 and 2.03. Considering histopathological diagnosis as the reference, ADA measurements have been found highly sensitive and specific. Thus ADA measurement both in the blood and in pleural fluid could provide a higher success in the differential diagnosis of the tb pleurisy. Routine application of this test might be of clinical profit.

16.Zinc and Copper Deficiency in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients with End Stage Renal Disease - Preliminary Report -
Saniye Sen, Naci M. Bor, Murat Colakoglu, Akif Ercan
Pages 71 - 73
Serum zinc and copper levels and erythrocyte zinc contents were studied and a series of 49 randomly chosen patients on maintenance hemodialysis program. All patients were suffering of end stage renal disease for which they were referred to the hemodialysis center. Upon arrival their mean blood urea nitrogen was above 150 g/dl, serum creatinine levels over 10 mg and creatinine learance less than 10 ml/min. They were on a specified diet containing 40-50 gr protein per day. Their mean serum zinc levels were found 60.69±1.21 g/dl, erythrocyte zinc content 1175.28±55.88 g/dl 1010 erythrocyte zinc content 11.29±0.24 g/dl and serum copper levels 88.43±3.36 g/dl. Each of these figures were significantly below those of a group of normal control subjects (p<0.05). A striking similarity between zinc deficiency symptoms and the complaints of these patients develop on maintenance hemodialysis program (anemia, loss of weight, neuropathy, arthropathy, gonadal dysfunctions alopecia, nail dystrophy) has been observed and its significance discussed.

17.Cancer of The Operated Stomach
Fatma A. Tatar, Erol Kaymak, Ali G. Deneçli, Mustafa Özer, Güven Atasoy
Pages 74 - 77
Between 1970-1989 in Izmir State Hospital third Surgical Clinic, 19 out of 587 gastric cancers were found to be operated previously for benign ulcer disease. The cases were evaluated for prior history of gastric surgery, age, sex, interval between surgery and diagnosis, treatment, prognosis and compared with prior reports in the literature. It is mostly believed that previous gastric surgery is a risk factor for gastric cancer development. The etiopathogenesis is still questinable although duodenogastric reflux, an/hipoaciditiy are accused. Early diagnosis is important for the prognosis is generally poor. We recommend endoscopic examination starting in the fifth postoperative year.

18.Zinc in Treatment of Psoriasis
Naci M. Bor, A. Karabıyıkoglu, H. Dereagzı
Pages 78 - 82
Serum zinc and copper levels and the results of treatment with systemic zinc sulfate are presented in 10 demonstrative cases. All patients in this series complained of typical skin manifestations of psoriasis. In each case the diagnosis was proven histologically. Serum zinc levels (82.6± 1.93 g/dl) were below that of normal controls at the first visit, gradually rose following oral treatment reaching to (99.3± 6.01 g/dl) on the second month (p<0.05) and climbed to 103.6 g/dl during the subsequent months. Simultaneously the clinical manifestations of psoriasis improved and finally disappeared. Serum copper levels were maintained within normal limits. The mean serum copper level was 107.8± 5.85 g/dl at the beginning of the treatment. It was slightly reduced at the end of third month was later maintained near the initial level (109.3± 8.2 g/dl, p>0.05). The improvement therefore of the clinical status of the patients was most likely because of restoration of serum zinc level to normal.

19.The Use of Colchicine in Arthroscopic Wash-Out Fluid in Early Degenerative Arthritis of The Rabbit Knee Joint
Mahmut N. Doral, Emre Acaroglu, Ertugrul Sener, Metin Baydar, Ertan Özturk
Pages 83 - 86
The effects of arthroscopic wash-out method with colchicine was studied in early degenerative arthritis of rabbits knee joint induced by sulphurus. Histopathologic changes and PGE2, LTB4 like activities of articular tissue were the main parameters of evaluation in this study. Elevation of the mediator levels and histologic changes induced by the injection of 2% solution of sulphurus were improved following arthroscopic wash-out with solutions containing colchicine and diclofenac sodium. Those findings are taken as an evidence for the therapeutical value of arthroscopic wash-out in the treatment of early degenerative arthritis. In conclusion, early knee joint degenerative arthritis induced by intraarticular injection of sulphurus, both PGE2 and LTB4 activities were increased and closely correlated to the histopathological findings. Intraarticular wash-out with colchicine and diclofenac sodium significantly inhibited the elevated activities of both mediators and improved the regeneration of altered tissue.

20.The Function of Enzymes in Removing Candida Accumulated On Denture Plaque
Senay Canay, Sibel Ergüven, Nuran Yulug
Pages 87 - 89
The denture plaque that is a cause of denture stomatitis has Candida albicans to a great extent. The plaque accumulated should be removed in order to prevent infections related to Candida albicans. Since chemical denture cleansing agents have some inconveniences in application and are less effective, in recent years the use of enzyme containing cleansers has become popular. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of enzymes in removing C. albicans from the denture plaque. The plaque was accumulated on polymethyl-methacrylate plates by the strain of C. albicans and the effect of enzymes such as papain, trypsin and amylase were investigated by the cell-counting procedure. Papain, a proteolytic enzyme, was found to be effective (80%).

21.Unusual Localization and Etiology of Giant Cell Granuloma
Ferda Taşar, Sedef Bayık, Kenan Eratalay
Pages 90 - 92
The case history of a 36 year old woman is presented who complained of slowly expanding painless tumor formations on anterior portions of both maxilla and mandibula. They were clinically and radiologically diagnosed as two separate central giant cell granulomas (CGCG). Besides their sizes their locations were considered unusual. The patient also had Angle II, Division 2 malocclusion which by causing repeated micro trauma may have contributed to formation of these tumors. Both of which were removed under general anesthesia. Histologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of CGCG with no metastases.

22.A Contribution to The Islamic Chronology
J. Tomsa
Pages 93 - 94
Abstract | Full Text PDF

23.Modified Technique of Extra Amniotic Rivanol Instillation for Second and Third Trimester Pregnancy Termination
M. Sait Yücebilgin, E. Özkınay, C. Sarınoglu
Pages 95 - 96
Abstract | Full Text PDF

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