ISSN 2415-1297 (Online)   ISSN 2415-1300 (Print)
 
             
 
Volume : 27 Issue : 3 Year : 2019
 
Med J Islamic World Acad Sci: 6 (2)
Volume: 6  Issue: 2 - 1993
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
1.Nuclear Transplantation in Different Families of Teleost: Combination of The Nucleus of Zebrafish (Brachydanio Rerio) and The Cytoplasm of Loach (Paramisgurnus Dabryanus)
Y. Shaoyi, M. Zhongrung, L. Shukhong, H. Guoping, C. Huiping, J. Guanquin, L. Lidong, X. Shiling, Y. Leining, X. Dequan
Pages 82 - 87
In this paper, we present the results obtained in the experiments of nuclear transplantation in teleost of different families. The nuclei of blastula cells of zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio, family Cyprinidae, order Cypriniformes, 2N=50) were transplanted into the enucleated eggs of loach (Paramisgruns dabryanus, family Cobitidae, order Cypriniformes, 2N=48). From 4812 nucleocytoplasmic hybrid (NCH) eggs eight NCH larval fish were obtained (0.17%). One of which developed up to 151 hours. The developmental potential of this kind of NCH eggs was improved as compared to the NCH eggs obtained in other inter-family combinations reported by us previously, i.e. the combination of the nucleus of goldfish (Carassius autratus, family Cyprinidae, order Cypriniformes, 2N=100) and the cytoplasm of loach (Paramisgurnus dabryanus, family Cobitidae, order Cypriniformes, 2N=48) and their reciprocal combination, the combination of the nucleus of loach and the cytoplasm of goldfish. The results obtained in this experiment indicated that the similarity of the chromosome number between the nucleus-donor and cytoplasm-recipient fishes will be helpful for improving the natural developmental incompatibility between the nucleus and the cyptoplasm in an NCH egg, even though they originate from two taxonomically distantly related species of fishes.

2.The Effects of Aspirin Metabolites on Nadh-Methaemoglobin Reductase (Diaphorase) Activity in Human Erythrocytes
M. M. Ziu, A. S. M. Giasuddin
Pages 88 - 94
The present study was undertaken to know whether aspirin metabolites (sodium salicylate, Na-SA; sodium gentisate, Na-GA; sodium salicylate, Na-SA; sodium gentisate, Na-GA; sodium salicylurate, Na-SU) exert their reported toxic effects by inhibiting the enzyme 'NADH-Methaemoglobin (MHb) reductase (Diaphorase)' in normal adult human erythrocytes. The inhibition of the enzyme activity in normal haemolysates was observed to be highest with Na-SU, followed by Na-GA and Na-SA respectively (92%, 90% and 75% inhibition with 0.13 mM Na-SU, 50 mM Na-GA and 50 mM Na-SA respectively). The Linewearer-Burk plots from the kinetic studies (Vmax) with varying concentrations of the substrate 'NADH' indicated that the inhibition of the enzyme activity by all the three aspirin metabolites were of non-competitive type [Vmax(U)NADH alone: 47.64 ± 4.56, NADH + 10 mM Na-SA: 24.39 ± 2.34, P<0.02; Vmax (U)NADHNADH alone: 16.67 ± 1.12,
NADH + 0.002 mM Na-SU: 7.09 ± 1.05, P<0.01]. The replacement of 'MHb' by the dye '2,6-dichlorobenzeneindophenol' suggested that the inhibitory effects were due to direct interaction of the aspirin metabolites with the enzyme molecules. No evidence was also found that aspirin metabolites interact directly with NADH. It was, therefore, concluded that the aspirin metabolites (Na-SA, Na-GA, Na-SU) exert their reported toxic effects through inhibition of NADH- MHb reductase activity in a non-competitive manner probably by interacting at a region near the 'active site' causing allosteric (conformational) changes in the enzyme molecules. These conformational changes, in turn, inhibit the catalytic activity of the enzyme 'Diaphorase' in human erythrocytes leading to toxic manifestations.

3.Partial Purification of Phospholipase C from Oxystelma Esculantum
A. N. Memon, M. U. Dahot
Pages 95 - 98
Phospholipase C from Oxystelma esculantum was purified by acetone precipitation and
column chromatography on Sephadex G-100. It was then separated into two fractions (Phospholipase C I and II). Phospholipase C was homogeneous on polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis. The optimum pH of Phospholipase C I was 5.5 and the temperature 30°C. The nature of phospholipase C I was that of a metalloenzyme activated in presence of CoCl2, ZnCl2 and CaCl2 whereas it was completely inhibited by EDTA due to chelation with metal ion. It was heatlabile.

4.Synthesis of Some 6-(Alkylamino) Methyl Hexahydro-5-Aryl-And Aralkyl-4, 7-Methanoindan-5-Ols and Certain of Their Propionate Esters as Analgesics
M. Nabil Aboul-Enein, A. A. El-Azzouny, N. A. Abdallah, S. M. Moharam, W. Werner, A. Eid, A. A. Makhluf
Pages 99 - 107
The synthesis and screening of the analgesic activity of a series of 6-(alkylamino) methyl
hexahydro-5-aryl-and aralkyl-4,7-methanoindan-5-ols (2 a-p) and the corresponding propionate esters 6b, c, g, k and m are described. Some of these tertiary alcohols exhibited slight analgesic potency comparable with that of Tramadol i the hot-plate test.

5.Oxytocic Activity and Toxic Effects of Globulins of Abrus Seeds (Scarlet Variety) in Rabbits
F. Zia Khan, M. Asif Saeed, Ejaz Ahmad
Pages 108 - 113
Seeds of Abrus precatorius L (scarlet variety) were investigated for the isolation and for the oxytocic effects of water insoluble protein (globulin) on sequester rabbit uterus. Powdered seeds were macerated with 5% (w/v) aqueous sodium chloride solution and the protein was subsequently precipitated by saturated solution of ammonium sulphate. Oxytocic activity was confirmed by correlating with a standard oxytocic drug. Other pharmacological effects such as toxicity, on the ovarian tissues and its hormones were also explored. Globulin injected to the animals for 24 hours altered the cyclic rhythm of the ovaries. It lowered the plasma level of oestradiol, while the plasma level of progesterone remained unaltered. It was also responsible for the hemorrhage of the ovarian follicles.
It has been concluded that the oxytocic component interferes with the cyclic rhythm of the female rabbit either through modifying the steroidal metabolism of the ovaries or through its toxicity on the ovarian tissues.

6.Comparative Effect of Different Levels of Gentamicin in Viable Bacterial Count of Cow Bull Semen
Z. I. Qureshi, Ala-Ud -Din, L. A. Lodhi, R. U. Sahahid, N. A. Naz
Pages 114 - 117
Semen of two cross bred (Sahiwal and Fresian) and one Sahiwal cow bull was used in this study. Bull wise and ejaculate wise bacterial count was recorded after diluting the semen samples in Lactosefructose, egg yolk extender. Gentamicin at a dose rate of 0.00, 50.00, 250.00 and 500 g/ml was added to four fractious of each semen sample. The significant difference was observed in bacterial count between bulls and ejaculates. It was concluded that gentamicin 500 g/ml is very effective in controlling the bacterial microflora of cow bull semen.

7.Ammonia Assimilation in Methanobacterium Formicium and Some Properties of Glutamine Synthetase
Raquya Siddiqi, John P. Robinson
Pages 118 - 120
Since Methanobacterium formicium grew in the presence of low ammonia concentration it was thought likely that GS/GOGAT system for ammonia assimilation would be present in cell extract of M. formicium. Cell free extracts of M. formicium were assayed by -glutamyl transferase method. The cell free extracts preparation showed significant glutamine synthetase activity. Optimum pH of glutamine synthetase was found to be 8.8. The enzyme was partially oxygen sensitive and temperature sensitive. Glutamate synthase (GOGAT) activity could not be detected in cell free extracts of M. formicium. Glutamate dehydrogenase activity was present in cells grown with high concentration (3.4 mM) of ammonia.

8.Action of Streptococcus Faecalis Chain Disruption System as Revealed by Scanning Electron Microscopy
M. Rafi Shaikh, Dilvanaz Shaikh, B. Shyum Naqvi, Mohammad Farouq
Pages 121 - 123
Short-chain Streptococcus faecalis group (D) zymogenes has been described to elaborate a lytic factor in fluid media which disrupts longer chains. The chain disrupting system was fractionated on Sephadex G-75 and its action was studied by scanning electron microscopy; indicating random sites of its attack on cocci of homologous species namely NCTC 2400.

9.Studies on Mycoflora and Aflatoxin in regular and Decaffeinated Black Tea
H. A. H. Hasan, M. A. Abdel-Sater
Pages 124 - 130
The mycofloral analysis of twenty different kinds of black tea powder (commonly used in Egypt) indicated that, all these samples have wide range of mould species and counts. A thirty two species and 2 varieties belonging to 9 genera were collected on 1% glucose- (7 genera and 20 species) and 40% sucrose- (7 and 23+2 varieties) Czapek's agar at 28°C. The most prevalent mould on one or two substrates were members of Aspergillus, Penicillum, Cladosporium and Eurotium. The most polluted tea, in total count, were Tayseer, Blue Tea Pot and El-Balabel. The lowest contaminated tea were Khan El-Khallily, Yaquot and El-Arosa.
The total count of tea-borne fungi was more flourished by increasing moisture content. Aspergillus flavus and A. tamarii represent the most prevalent moulds after 20 days of tea storage at 45% m.c. Aflatoxin production by A. flavus IMI 89717 was also increased by the increase of moisture content of both regular and decaffeinated tea. Aflatoxin biosynthesis on decaffeinated tea was more hazardous than the regular tea specially at 45% m.c.
Aflatoxin biosynthesis of A. flavus IMI 89717 was recorded in all kinds of tea after 20 day of storage at 45% m.c. and 28°C. The highest aflatoxin quantity produced in Al-Fares, Ezi-Nasser, Lipton and Tayseer tea, and by their isolates of A. flavus in PD broth. The lowest quantity produced on Khan El-Khallily and Massgeed tea, and by their isolates in liquid medium.

10.Nd: YAG Contact Laser Arthroscopy Preliminary Report
O. Sahap Atik, Ertugrul Sener, Selçuk Bölükbası, Erdal Cila
Pages 131 - 132
Arthroscopic surgery was performed using 15 to 40 watts Nd: YAG contact laser in 61 patients on 57 knee and 4 shoulder joints. Lateral retinacular release was done in 6 patients, partial synovectomy in 7, chondroplasty in 26, debridement in 24 patients and menisectomy in 21 cases. Bleeding during these procedures and swelling after the intervention were minimal and the wound healing was normal with no serious complications. The recovery period was short and was followed by satisfactory restoration of function.

11.Scanning Electron Microscope Study of Human Enamel Surfaces Treated with Topical Fluoride Agents
Seval Ölmez, Binnur Yüksel, Hamdi Çelik
Pages 133 - 139
The effect of a neutral sodium fluoride (NaF) gel and an acidulated phosphate fluoride (AFP) gel on surface morphology of twenty enamel specimens were obtained from human enamel were studied. Two groups of ten teeth were treated with one of the topical fluoride agents. Spherical globular agglomerates that are thought to be CaF2 particles, were observed when specimens were examined by scanning electron microscope on enamel surfaces. Then five specimens randomly chosen of each group were immersed in 1 mol/L KOH for 16 hours. As a result of etching properties of APF, prism etched pits were filled with small CaF2 particles. These results indicate that the CaF2 particles. These results indicate that the CaF2 particles formed in etched pits of the enamel do not dissolve in 1 mol/L KOH in in-vitro conditions which suggest that the same particles most likely are not cleared away by the saliva in the mouth under normal circumstances.

12.Hydrothermal Reactions between Lime and Aggregate Fines I. Experimental Conditions for Strength Improvement Using Saturated Steam at Atmospheric Pressure
S. Alam Khan, Y. Ali Talib
Pages 140 - 144
A comparison of the compressive strength has been made through hydrothermal reactions of lime and silica sand. Various additives, such as china-clay, Na2CO3, CaSO4, 2H2O, slate, fire-clay and Na2SiO3 have been employed in order to get the higher strength. The compressive strengths and mineralogy were determined for various mixtures of lime and aggregate fines autoclaved at a steam pressure of 0.1 MPa (100°C) for 6, 12, 18, 24 and 48 hours. A maximum strength of 25.0 MPa was recorded after 48-hours reaction between 80% silica sand, 15% lime and 5% china clay, whereas if the reactants are only silica sand (85%) and lime (15%), they lead to lower 48-hours strength (11.3 MPa). The cementitious product identified was calcium hydro-silicate.

13.Clinical, Biochemical and Histopathological Findings and Long-Term Prognosis in Mesangiocapillary Glomerulonephritis
Tamer Tetiker, Saime Paydas, Yahya Saglıker, Gülfiliz Gönlüsen, Abdülkadir Ersoy, İlhan Tuncer
Pages 145 - 148
In this study, three years follow-up of 26 patients with mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (MCGN) was assessed. First group consisted of 15 patients (mean age 30.0±13.6); whose proteinuria became negative and serum creatinine levels dropped below 2 mg/dl at the end of 3 years. Group II included 11 patients whose proteinuria continued and renal functions did not improve or deteriorated (Mean age 23.2±8.8). In three patients of group II end-stage renal disease developed in 6th, 12th and 24th months and the remaining patients of this group showed decreased renal function and/or continued proteinuria. During the first assessment in Groups I and II, the rate of nephrotic syndrome 60% (9/19) and 72% (8/11), hypertension 53% (8/15) and 63% (7/11) was noticed.
In preliminary evaluation the prognostic factors were the presence on renal biopsies of tubulointerstitial changes (TIC) (27% and 80% groups I and II), vascular involvement (18.2% and 90% Groups I and II), glomerulosclerosis (9.1% and 60%). In the group II with poor prognosis creatinine clearance (Ccr) was lower and leukocyte count was higher compared to group I, whereas statistically significant differences were not found.
As a result; Among our 26 patients with MCGN the complete recovery from disease was 57.6%, and the factors which influenced the prognosis at the beginning of the process were renal biopsy findings including the presence of glomerulosclerosis, vascular involvement (VI) and tubulointerstitial changes (TIC), rather than biochemical and clinical signs.

14.Some Chemical Additives to Increase The Activity Spectrum of Bacillus Thuringiensis Var. Kurstaki (Dipel 2x) against The Rice Moth Corcyra Cephalonica
A. A. El-Moursy, A. Sharaby, H. H. Awad
Pages 149 - 154
Some chemical additives have been adopted to increase the potency of D-endotoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki (Dipel 2X) against the rice moth Corcyra cephalonica. Procedures were based on the incorporation of some selected essentially non toxic and low cost compounds with different modes of action with the endotoxin to increase its activity. Among the compounds tested were some inorganic salts, nitrogenous compounds, protein solubilizing agents, sugars, some plant powders and some plant extracts.

15.The Effect of Antioxidant Agents on Cadmium Induced Impairment in Gastric Mucosa of Rats
V. N. İzgüt- Uysal, Gülsen Öner, Ümit K. Sentürk
Pages 155 - 159
The balance between antioxidative and oxidative capacity of gastric mucosal epithelium plays an important role in maintenance of gastric mucosal integrity. High cadmium intake, disturbs this balance by increasing lipid peroxidation.
In this experimental study, lipid peroxidation induced mucosal damage and its prevention due to antioxidant agents were investigated in rats exposed to high cadmium instake. It was found that gastric mucin decreased from 188.06 ± 10.76 g/g wet wt to 158.41 ± 22.74 g/g wet wt (p<0.01) and PGE2 levels declined from 1321.92 ± 271.65 g/g wet wt to 1030.30 ± 278.51 g/g wet wt (p<0.05) and an increment of hemoglobin leakage into luminal fluid was observed in rats received 1.5 g/ml of cadmium containing water for 30 days in these exposed animals. TBARS levels in blood and gastric mucosa increased from 13.33 ± 3.30 nmol/g Hb to 19.54 ± 6.92 nmol/g Hb (p<0.05) and from 685.0 ± 123.70 nmol/g protein to 1090 ± 154.40 nmol/g protein, respectively. Co-administration of cadmium with antioxidant agents (1.42 g/kg Se, 0.21 U/kg Vit. E, 14.3 U/kg Vit. A, 0.86 mg/kg Vit. C) did not prevent the lipid peroxidative effect of cadmium in gastric mucosa of rats.



   
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